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Location Kenya, Central Province,Rift Valley Province
Central coordinates 36o 33.78' East  0o 39.18' South
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 72,000 ha
Altitude 2,400 - 2,700m
Year of IBA assessment 2001


Site description These montane grasslands lie on the Kinangop Plateau, a wide stretch of land bounded by the forests of the Aberdare mountains (IBA KE001) and Kikuyu Escarpment (KE004) to the east and south, and by a steep scarp dropping to the Rift Valley floor on the west. To the west and north, the IBA boundary follows the 2,400 m contour. Rainfall averages c.1,000 mm/year, but the southern part is wetter than the north, which lies in the rain shadow of the Aberdares. The landscape is generally flat, sloping gently upwards to the base of the Aberdare mountains, but dissected by valleys bearing streams that drain into the Malewa and Karati rivers (see Lake Naivasha, KE048). Originally, the entire plateau was covered with almost treeless, tussocky grassland, including many tussock bogs in the swampy valleys. Characteristic tussock grasses include Andropogon amethystinus, Cymbopogon nardus, Digitaria diagonalis, Eleusine jaegeri, Eragrostis botruodes, Hyparrhenia hirta, H. tamba and Pennisetum hohenackeri. Since the 1960s the area has been settled by the Kikuyu people, whose livelihood revolves around small-scale farming. Large areas of land have been ploughed for cultivation (mainly maize, wheat, cabbages and potatoes) or to remove the tussock grass species, which livestock find unpalatable. Woodlots of introduced trees, such as Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mearnsii, Pinus radiata and Cupressus lusitanica, now dot the landscape. Many of the wetlands have been drained, directly or by planting water-thirsty exotic trees.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Table 2 for key species. This is probably the world stronghold of Macronyx sharpei, a threatened Kenya endemic. The species is confined to grassland, preferring short-grass fields with tussocks, and in good habitat occurs at densities of 0.8 individuals/ha. Cisticola aberdare is thought to occur in the higher parts of the plateau, close to the Aberdare mountains, but its status is uncertain. Circus macrourus occurs on passage. The grasslands support a distinctive avifauna that includes localized species such as Vanellus melanopterus, Cisticola ayresii, Euplectes jacksoni (a seasonal visitor, nesting in tussock grassland and at times in wheat fields) and E. progne (a regionally threatened species). Large numbers of Palearctic migrants use the area on passage, notably Falco subbuteo, Buteo buteo, Ciconia nigra, Apus apus, Merops apiaster, Motacilla flava and Oenanthe oenanthe.

Non-bird biodiversity: The fauna and flora of these grasslands have been little studied. Very few large wild mammals survive on the Kinangop, but many smaller species that are confined to highland grassland can be expected. The frogs Hyperolius montanus and Phrynobatrachus kinangopensis and the snake Bitis worthingtonii are recorded only in Kinangop and a few other sites in the Kenyan highlands. Hyperolius montanus was considered secure in 1980, but it is a montane grassland species and may now be under threat.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus passage  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Hunter's Cisticola Cisticola hunteri resident  1999  present  A2  Least Concern 
Aberdare Cisticola Cisticola aberdare resident  1999  present  A2  Endangered 
Jackson's Widowbird Euplectes jacksoni resident  1999  present  A1, A2  Near Threatened 
Sharpe's Longclaw Macronyx sharpei resident  1999  present  A1, A2  Endangered 

IBA Monitoring

2009 high very unfavourable negligible
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - small-holder plantations happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather drought likely in long term (beyond 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather temperature extremes happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species direct mortality of trigger species - hunting and trapping happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Artificial - terrestrial   0 0 moderate (70-90%) poor (40-69%) very unfavourable

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  negligible 

Local conservation groups The local conservation group below is working to support conservation at this IBA.

Name Year formed
Friends of Kinangop Plateau 1999


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land  50%
Grassland Grassland - montane  50%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 100%
nature conservation and research minor
Notes: Nature Kenya has purchased 90ha of the Nature reserve as a long term incentive to conserve the population of Sharpe's Longclaw.

References Bennun and Njoroge (1996), Lens (1995), Lens et al. (2000, in press), Muchai (1997), Muchai et al. (in press a,b), Ndang’ang’a (2001), Rayment and Pisano (2000).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Kinangop grasslands. Downloaded from on 28/11/2014

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