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Location Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Central coordinates 38o 46.14' East  9o 5.52' North
IBA criteria A3
Area 2,300 ha
Altitude 2,600 - 3,100m
Year of IBA assessment 1996

Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society



Site description Entoto Natural Park lies on the south-eastern slopes of Mt Entoto, between the northern limit of the city of Addis Ababa (at c.2,600 m), and the track along the mountain ridge (at over 3,100 m). This track forms the border between Addis Ababa and Oromiya Regions, and divides two large watersheds, that of the Abbay (Blue Nile) to the north and the Awash to the south. The mountain is formed from a tilted block of bedrock that has left very steep, soil-less slopes and cliffs on the northern side, and much longer, shallower slopes on the south-eastern side. The natural vegetation is Afro-montane forest and, where drainage is impeded, woodland with open meadows. The forest would have been dominated by Juniperus procera with groves of Olea europaea cuspidata, scattered Hagenia abyssinica, Hypericum revolutum, H. quartinianum, Podocarpus falcatus and Acacia abyssinica, with A. negrii in some of the more disturbed valleys. Erica arborea appears at altitudes above 3,000 m. Shrubby areas include species with fleshy fruits like Rosa abyssinica and Carissa edulis, which attract fruit-eating birds. The number of herbs, both in the undergrowth of the forest and in the meadows, is very large and includes a number of endemics, particularly clovers. The whole Entoto mountain range (and many of those around it) has been covered with Eucalyptus plantations. Farmers on Entoto cultivate barley and raise cattle and sheep. Despite the close proximity to the city, their system of farming has been little affected by modern inputs. Thus the habitats in the park are diverse: forest, bushland, cultivated fields, grassy meadows, rocky slopes and cliffs, streams and marshes.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Table 3 for key species. So far, 115 species have been recorded from Entoto Natural Park and escarpment (although over 200 are known or likely to occur). Two of these, Dendropicos abyssinicus and Parophasma galinieri, are Ethiopian endemics. Vanellus melanocephalus, Macronyx flavicollis and Serinus nigriceps may occur occasionally in the montane grasslands, as they are known from similar habitat nearby. Also, as the natural vegetation is restored, it is likely that more species, such as Poicephalus flavifrons, which is known from nearby Menagesha State Forest (site ET031), will move into the park. The park is an excellent place for watching vultures (with five species present), as well as eagles, buzzards and hawks, larks and ravens. Of particular interest are Gypaetus barbatus (a notable population exists in the Entoto and Gorfu hills), Buteo oreophilus, Bubo capensis (historical records only), Aquila wahlbergi and Accipiter rufiventris. There is a substantial Gyps rueppellii roost. Many Palearctic and intra-African migrant species use the park.

Non-bird biodiversity: None known to BirdLife International.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Banded Barbet Lybius undatus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Francolinus psilolaemus resident  1996  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Erckel's Francolin Pternistis erckelii resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Wattled Ibis Bostrychia carunculata resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-collared Pigeon Columba albitorques resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Turtle-dove Streptopelia lugens resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-winged Lovebird Agapornis taranta resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-cheeked Turaco Tauraco leucotis resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Caprimulgus poliocephalus resident  1996  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Nyanza Swift Apus niansae breeding  1996  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Woodpecker Dendropicos abyssinicus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dark-headed Oriole Oriolus monacha resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Thick-billed Raven Corvus crassirostris resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-backed Tit Parus leuconotus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus umbrovirens resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Warbler Sylvia lugens resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Catbird Parophasma galinieri resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Montane White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sharpe's Starling Cinnyricinclus sharpii resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Starling Onychognathus tenuirostris resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-billed Starling Onychognathus albirostris resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Zoothera piaggiae resident  1996  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Rueppell's Robin-chat Cossypha semirufa resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Moorland Chat Cercomela sordida resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-winged Cliff-chat Monticola semirufus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Slaty Flycatcher Dioptrornis chocolatinus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Tacazze Sunbird Nectarinia tacazze resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swainson's Sparrow Passer swainsonii resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Crimson-wing Cryptospiza salvadorii resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Citril Serinus citrinelloides resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-rumped Seedeater Serinus tristriatus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Serinus striolatus resident  1996  present  A3  Not Recognised 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Entoto Natural Park Wildlife Reserve 0 protected area contained by site 0  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   46%
Shrubland   53%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
other -
Notes: Collection of fuelwood.

References Atkins (1996b), Blanck and Englund (1995).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Entoto Natural Park and escarpment. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2014

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