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Location Ethiopia, Tigray
Central coordinates 39o 47.16' East  13o 39.60' North
IBA criteria A1, A3
Area 60,000 ha
Altitude 1,500 - 2,500m
Year of IBA assessment 1996

Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society

Site description Dessa’a forest is on the eastern escarpment, north-east of Mekele and c.20 km south-east of Agula town, Eastern Zone. The topography in Dessa’a is varied and includes some flatter areas and gentle slopes as well as steep scarps. The forest extends in an easterly direction along and down the escarpment, and forms a climatic buffer zone between the cool highlands of Tigray and the hot lowlands in Afar Region. Generally, rainfall along this part of the escarpment is marginal for tree growth. However, it seems likely that the forest abstracts moisture from the clouds that build up along the escarpment. Close to the forest there is a valley where one of the oldest irrigation systems in the country still functions. The soils in the valley are deep and fertile with both grassy and somewhat swampy patches as well as cultivated fields. Most of the trees in the forest are found at the higher altitudes, and relatively undisturbed forest exists only on the steep eastern slopes. A detailed study of the vegetation has not been made, but the species composition is most likely similar to that of the escarpment forests in Eritrea. The dominant tree species is Juniperus procera, with some patches of Olea europaea cuspidata; at lower altitudes Juniperus procera tends to be replaced by Acacia spp. including A. origena, a species only found on the eastern escarpment of Ethiopia and Eritrea, and in Yemen. A range of small understorey trees and bushes are likely to occur. Particularly characteristic of such dry montane forests are Barbeya oleoides (a monotypic family), Cadia purpurea, Berberis holstii and Tarchonanthus camphoratus. The plateau above the escarpment is heavily cultivated and the forest provides valuable grazing, particularly in the dry season. A major feature of the forest is the centuries-old track that passes through it, used by camel trains bringing blocks of salt up from the Afar.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Table 3 for key species. This is the only known location in Ethiopia for Emberiza cineracea, whose range within Africa otherwise extends only to Eritrea. However, the species is known only from one record of a single bird. Circus macrourus has also been recorded. A total of 42 bird species have been recorded from the forest and 67 from the plateau directly west of the forest. The combined total includes 15 species belonging to the Afrotropical Highlands biome of which one, Serinus nigriceps, is an Ethiopian endemic near the edge of its range. Below 1,800 m, two Somali–Masai biome species occur, namely Tockus flavirostris and Uraeginthus ianthinogaster. The eastern escarpment in this area is a distinct flyway for migrating eagles, with up to 50 Aquila nipalensis recorded on one day in October 1995.

Non-bird biodiversity: None known to BirdLife International.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Erckel's Francolin Pternistis erckelii resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Wattled Ibis Bostrychia carunculata resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus passage  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Rouget's Rail Rougetius rougetii resident  1996  present  A1, A3  Near Threatened 
White-collared Pigeon Columba albitorques resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Turtle-dove Streptopelia lugens resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Nyanza Swift Apus niansae resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus umbrovirens resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Starling Onychognathus tenuirostris resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-winged Cliff-chat Monticola semirufus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Little Rock-thrush Monticola rufocinereus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swainson's Sparrow Passer swainsonii resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ethiopian Siskin Serinus nigriceps resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-rumped Seedeater Serinus tristriatus resident  1996  present  A3  Least Concern 
Serinus striolatus resident  1996  present  A3  Not Recognised 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Desa-A National Forest Priority Area 20,000 protected area contained by site 20,000  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   97%
Grassland   2%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
forestry -
water management -

References Dijksen (1996), Friis (1992), Tadesse (1992), Teklu (1992).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Dessa'a forest. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016

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