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Location Eritrea, Northern Red Sea Zone
Central coordinates 38o 47.40' East  15o 47.10' North
IBA criteria A1, A3
Area 130,000 ha
Altitude 900 - 2,600m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Site description The site, also known as ‘the Eritrean Green Belt’ (or by the Italian name ‘Pendice Orientale’), lies between about 20 and 100 km north of Asmara on the coastal (eastern) escarpment of the Central Plateau. It contains the only remaining mixed evergreen tropical woodland in Eritrea. There is magnificent mountain scenery with sheer drops, rock precipices, spurs and deep valleys cutting into the mountains up to high altitudes. The whole montane area is frequently in cloud and there are profuse lichens in some areas. The highest upland areas consist of rough, stony moorland, rocky hillsides and peaks, scrubby tussock-grassland (with exotic cacti including Opuntia vulgaris), and Juniperus procera woodland. Riparian vegetation includes willows in the deep valleys. Below about 2,500 m, Juniperus procera woodland with shrubby undergrowth dominates. Below c.2,100–2,300 m the vegetation is Olea africana-dominated evergreen woodland and upland scrub (Olea, Euphorbia, Dodonaea, Opuntia, Rosa and occasional Acacia spp.), which gives way, at around 1,400 m, to Combretum forest, with Terminalia and Anogeissus spp. This continues down to c.300 m at the edge of the Eastern Plain. Riparian woodland along watercourses in this zone includes Acacia, Ficus, Rhus, Acokanthera, Ricinus, Gymnosporia and Buddleia spp., with dense mats of the herb Flaveria australasiatica adjacent to rivers at intermediate altitudes after rain.

Because of the huge altitudinal gradient (from 2,600 m at the top of the massif, dropping to about 400 m over a horizontal distance of less than 15 km), the site contains a great diversity of climates and habitats. For five months of the year (October to March) the upper slopes can be covered continuously in mist and drizzle. It tends to be drier and sunnier from March to September, but the site can also receive rainfall during the ‘main rains’ sweeping down from the plateau between mid-June and mid-September. There are areas of poor agricultural land among the moorland, scrub and juniper, with rocky pastureland and terraced fields where wheat, barley and taff (Eragrostis tef) are cultivated during the wetter months (about 10% of the land appeared cultivated in one area at about 2,100 m: Butynski 1995). There are scattered Eucalyptus plantations and, at lower levels (in the Olea africana-dominated woodland), some cultivation of maize, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, citrus fruits and coffee. There is also some (probably seasonal) grazing of livestock, particularly at higher levels on the plateau and during the wetter months.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Table 2 for key species. The site qualifies as an IBA partly due to the presence of significant numbers of Falco naumanni. Although he did not visit Semenawi Bahri specifically, Smith reports this species, in the 1950s, as ‘abundant at all altitudes on open grassland and scrub’ and also Circus macrourus as ‘a regular wintering species on the plateau over the moors’ (together with F. tinnunculus). More recently (1995) ‘impressive numbers’ of F. naumanni were recorded near an agricultural scheme by Tom Butynski, walking west from Allet (i.e. close to the proposed area of this IBA), although no information on actual numbers is available. It also seems likely that Rougetius rougetii will be found to occur here, as this species was said by Smith to ‘characterize small upland streams with adjacent willows, rank grass and marshy vegetation, 6,000 feet [1,800 m] and over’.

This is the only IBA in Eritrea from which the Afrotropical Highland (A07) species Caprimulgus poliocephalus is recorded and it appears particularly important for Francolinus erckelii, with ‘hundreds’ of calling birds recorded over several days throughout the site between 900–2,500 m in 1995. It is one of only two IBAs in the country from which the Somali–Masai (A08) species Cisticola bodessa is recorded. A number of the Afrotropical Highland species are included in Table 2 on the basis that they appear very likely to occur from comments in the literature by Smith which do not mention the location by name, but indicate that the species occurs in habitats and at altitudes on the eastern escarpment which correspond with those occurring within the site. Given the almost complete lack of survey work at the site it seems certain that additional species of both biomes will be added to these lists very readily through future surveys. There are also records of three Sahel (A03) biome species; see Table 2.

The site is also clearly important for raptors, including migrants, and is one of a number of sites along the eastern escarpment of the highland plateau which need further investigation as possible migration bottleneck sites (see ‘Overview of the inventory’). It is also important for other Palearctic migrants (e.g. Phoenicurus phoenicurus), particularly as it is one of the last wooded areas where forest migrants can rest and feed before continuing north to Europe or Asia. As such it is likely to be an important wintering and/ or staging area for Coturnix coturnix, Phylloscopus collybita and others, particularly warblers. The complete absence of some expected African bird families and insect groups was noticed with some surprise by Butynski (during March, in wet conditions). However, this may well reflect the large climatic changes in the site at different times of year and underlines the need for more survey work at different altitudes and in different seasons.

Non-bird biodiversity: The Semenawi Bahri is said to contain populations of Tragelaphus strepsiceros (LR/cd), T. scripta (LR/nt), Oreotragus oreotragus (LR/cd) and a species of Cephalophus duiker. Particularly high densities of baboons Papio hamadryas (LR/nt) were found in this area (and at sites ER006, ER007 and ER008) in 1997/98 (Zinner et al. 1999). Due to the diversity of altitudes, climates and habitats, it is probably one of the areas of highest species diversity in Eritrea and is known to contain species with small range distributions in Eritrea and some at the northern limit of their distributional range.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Erckel's Francolin Pternistis erckelii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni passage  1996  present  A1  Least Concern 
Rouget's Rail Rougetius rougetii resident  2000  present  A3  Near Threatened 
Dusky Turtle-dove Streptopelia lugens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-winged Lovebird Agapornis taranta resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-cheeked Turaco Tauraco leucotis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Caprimulgus poliocephalus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Black-billed Woodhoopoe Phoeniculus somaliensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hemprich's Hornbill Lophoceros hemprichii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Woodpecker Dendropicos abyssinicus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Boran Cisticola Cisticola bodessa resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-rumped Babbler Turdoides leucopygia resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-breasted White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Somali Starling Onychognathus blythii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Starling Onychognathus tenuirostris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Little Rock-thrush Monticola rufocinereus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Shining Sunbird Nectarinia habessinica resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-rumped Seedeater Serinus tristriatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Serinus striolatus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   32%
Shrubland   6%
Rocky areas   1%
Grassland   60%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
not utilised -

References Butynski (1995), DOE (1999), EAE (1995), FAO (1997), Murdoch (1998), Smith (1951b, 1957).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Semenawi Bahri. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016

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