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Location Egypt, Port Said
Central coordinates 32o 19.00' East  31o 13.00' North
IBA criteria A4i, A4iii
Area 3,500 ha
Altitude 0 - 10m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Nature Conservation Eqypt (Affiliate)

Site description Malaha was formerly the easternmost extension of Lake Manzala, from which it was cut off when the Suez Canal was constructed in the 1800s, and was further diminished by the construction of the Port Said bypass in the 1980s. Today, Malaha is composed of two shallow hyper-saline lagoons, the size and shape of which are variable; they reach their maximum size during winter and become nearly dry in summer. The lagoons are connected to the Mediterranean via Bughaz El Kala (eastern lagoon) and El Malaha (western lagoon). To the south and east lies the Tina Plain, which is a broad, barren, salt-encrusted sabkha, fringed at its southern edge by a large saltmarsh dominated by Nitraria bushes. The lagoons are separated from the Mediterranean by a sandbar that varies in width between 100 and 500 m, and which is covered in many areas with dense halophytic vegetation. Malaha supports a fishery of modest production. The catch in 1977 was 631 tonnes. The lagoon is manipulated to maximize fish production.

Key Biodiversity See Box for key species. Despite its fairly small size, Malaha is one of the most important wetlands in Egypt for waterbirds, and holds some of the greatest densities and numbers of both wintering and breeding waterbirds in the country. In winter 1989/90, a total of 52,700 waterfowl was counted, and in winter 1994, 6,500 Phoenicopterus ruber were counted in the eastern lagoon alone. The site’s relative isolation from human activity, and its highly productive habitats, make it attractive for several breeding waterbird species. In spring 1990, a large breeding colony of Larus genei was found here (about 5,700 nests). Phoenicopterus ruber is known to breed as well, but numbers and breeding success vary from year to year, and in some years breeding is not attempted. In 1986, some 750–1,000 adults with 350–400 chicks were counted. Breeding also took place in 1993 and 1994. Sterna albifrons and Sterna hirundo also breed in smaller numbers, Malaha being the only known breeding locality of the latter species in Egypt.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata winter  8,200 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus winter  6,500 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus breeding  375-500 breeding pairs  A4i  Least Concern 
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo winter  5,300 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta winter  8,910 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Charadrius alexandrinus winter  3,290 individuals  A4i  Not Recognised 
Slender-billed Gull Larus genei breeding  5,700 breeding pairs  A4i  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  20,000-49,999 individuals  unknown  A4iii   

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
fisheries/aquaculture -

References Goodman and Meininger (1989), Meininger and Atta (1994).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: El Malaha. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016

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