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Location Cameroon, South-west Province
Central coordinates 9o 10.00' East  4o 12.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 130,000 ha
Altitude 0 - 4,095m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Cameroon Biodiversity Conservation Society (Affiliate)



Site description Situated west of Douala, Mount Cameroon is a vast volcanic dome, 45 km long by 30 km wide, with its long axis aligned south-west–north-east. It lies on the Atlantic Ocean coast from which it is separated by the road skirting its base which links the town of Limbe in the south to Idenau in the west. The volcano is still active and eruptions occur from fissures on its flanks about every 20 years (the last two being in 1982 and 1999). The western foothills near Debundsha experience the highest rainfall in the country (c.10,000 mm per year); this decreases with increasing altitude and also from west to east, down to 2,000 mm around Buea, in the rain-shadow. The lower slopes used to bear a continuum of forest from sea-level up to c.2,300 m (the upper limit of forest varying between 2,200–2,400 m), to be replaced above by montane grassland, volcanic rock and gravel, up to the peak at 4,095 m. Encroachment from agriculture or from logging (in Bambuko Forest Reserve on the north-western side) has been nibbling the lower levels of the forest in most places up to an altitude of a few hundred metres on the western and northern sides, but up to at least 1,000 m on the southern and eastern sides. Severe and repeated human-induced bush fires in the drier eastern section have brought about serious degradation or even complete destruction of the forest cover in places (as along the Bonakanda trail). The montane grassland above that also gets burnt almost totally every dry season, and is very impoverished. Most of the montane forest has a very open canopy (important trees being Schefflera mannii, Syzygium guineense bamendae, Nuxia congesta, Prunus africana) and a dense understorey of Acanthaceae shrubs. The lowland forest on the lower slopes has a very different structure, the canopy is mainly closed and the understorey more open. The richest and most intact block of forest is Etinde (c.30,000 ha) on the south-western side. Etinde is contiguous with Bambuko Forest Reserve (24,500 ha) to the north, and is also attached (by a narrow neck of forest north-east of Idenau) to Onge River Forest and Mokoko River Forest Reserve. These cover c.35,000 ha of lowland rainforest, spreading north towards Mbonge; some of this was logged in the past, but a core area in Mokoko river remains intact.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Gymnobucco calvus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Trachyphonus purpuratus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Bristle-nosed Barbet Gymnobucco peli resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Speckled Tinkerbird Pogoniulus scolopaceus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Western Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus coryphaea resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-rumped Tinkerbird Pogoniulus atroflavus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-throated Tinkerbird Pogoniulus subsulphureus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-spotted Barbet Buccanodon duchaillui resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hairy-breasted Barbet Tricholaema hirsuta resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mount Cameroon Francolin Pternistis camerunensis resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 
Spot-breasted Ibis Bostrychia rara resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-crested Tiger-heron Tigriornis leucolopha resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Congo Serpent-eagle Dryotriorchis spectabilis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-flanked Sparrowhawk Accipiter castanilius resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-legged Sparrowhawk Accipiter erythropus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Long-tailed Hawk Urotriorchis macrourus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cassin's Hawk-eagle Aquila africana resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-spotted Flufftail Sarothrura pulchra resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Nkulengu Rail Himantornis haematopus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-throated Rail Canirallus oculeus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Afep Pigeon Columba unicincta resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cameroon Olive-pigeon Columba sjostedti resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Western Bronze-naped Pigeon Columba iriditorques resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-headed Wood-dove Turtur brehmeri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Psittacus erithacus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Green Turaco Tauraco persa resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-billed Turaco Tauraco macrorhynchus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx olivinus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-throated Cuckoo Chrysococcyx flavigularis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-throated Coucal Centropus leucogaster resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bubo poensis resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Sandy Scops-owl Otus icterorhynchus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Maned Owl Jubula lettii resident  2000  present  A3  Data Deficient 
Red-chested Owlet Glaucidium tephronotum resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sjostedt's Owlet Glaucidium sjostedti resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Caprimulgus nigriscapularis resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Brown Nightjar Veles binotatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scarce Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sabine's Spinetail Rhaphidura sabini resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cassin's Spinetail Neafrapus cassini resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bare-cheeked Trogon Apaloderma aequatoriale resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Trogon Apaloderma vittatum resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-throated Roller Eurystomus gularis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chocolate-backed Kingfisher Halcyon badia resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Dwarf-kingfisher Ispidina lecontei resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Kingfisher Corythornis leucogaster resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black Bee-eater Merops gularis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Merops muelleri resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Bycanistes fistulator resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Tropicranus albocristatus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Tockus fasciatus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Dwarf Hornbill Lophoceros camurus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-thighed Hornbill Bycanistes albotibialis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-casqued Hornbill Ceratogymna atrata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-casqued Hornbill Ceratogymna elata resident  2000  present  A1, A3  Vulnerable 
Cassin's Honeybird Prodotiscus insignis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Spotted Honeyguide Indicator maculatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Willcocks's Honeyguide Indicator willcocksi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lyre-tailed Honeyguide Melichneutes robustus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Campethera tullbergi resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Dendropicos gabonensis resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
African Piculet Verreauxia africana resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Buff-spotted Woodpecker Campethera nivosa resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-eared Woodpecker Campethera caroli resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fire-bellied Woodpecker Dendropicos pyrrhogaster resident  2000  rare  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-crested Woodpecker Dendropicos xantholophus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-headed Broadbill Smithornis sharpei resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-sided Broadbill Smithornis rufolateralis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Shrike-flycatcher Megabyas flammulatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut Wattle-eye Platysteira castanea resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-spotted Wattle-eye Platysteira tonsa resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-cheeked Wattle-eye Platysteira blissetti resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Monteiro's Bush-shrike Malaconotus monteiri resident  2000  unknown  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Grey-green Bush-shrike Telophorus bocagei resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fiery-breasted Bush-shrike Malaconotus cruentus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green-breasted Bush-shrike Malaconotus gladiator resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Red-eyed Puffback Dryoscopus senegalensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Large-billed Puffback Dryoscopus sabini resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-breasted Boubou Laniarius atroflavus resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Sooty Boubou Laniarius leucorhynchus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mountain Boubou Laniarius poensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Cuckooshrike Coracina caesia resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue Cuckooshrike Coracina azurea resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Petit's Cuckooshrike Campephaga petiti resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Western Black-headed Oriole Oriolus brachyrhynchus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-winged Oriole Oriolus nigripennis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Shining Drongo Dicrurus atripennis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-headed Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone rufiventer resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-headed Crested-flycatcher Trochocercus nitens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-vented Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone rufocinerea resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Crested-flycatcher Elminia nigromitrata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Crested-flycatcher Elminia albiventris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-capped Flycatcher Erythrocercus mccallii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-necked Picathartes Picathartes oreas resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Tit-hylia Pholidornis rushiae resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Square-tailed Saw-wing Psalidoprocne nitens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cameroon Mountain Saw-wing Psalidoprocne fuliginosa resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Least Concern 
Forest Swallow Hirundo fuliginosa resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Chattering Cisticola Cisticola anonymus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-backed Cisticola Cisticola discolor resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Green Longtail Urolais epichlorus resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Black-capped Apalis Apalis nigriceps resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Apalis rufogularis resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Yellow-browed Camaroptera Camaroptera superciliaris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive-green Camaroptera Camaroptera chloronota resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cameroon Montane Greenbul Andropadus montanus resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Grey-headed Greenbul Phyllastrephus poliocephalus resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Grey Greenbul Andropadus gracilis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ansorge's Greenbul Andropadus ansorgei resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Plain Greenbul Andropadus curvirostris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Western Mountain Greenbul Andropadus tephrolaemus resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Golden Greenbul Calyptocichla serina resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Honeyguide Greenbul Baeopogon indicator resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Greenbul Baeopogon clamans resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Spotted Greenbul Ixonotus guttatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Simple Greenbul Chlorocichla simplex resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swamp Greenbul Thescelocichla leucopleura resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cameroon Olive Greenbul Phyllastrephus poensis resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Icterine Greenbul Phyllastrephus icterinus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Xavier's Greenbul Phyllastrephus xavieri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Common Bristlebill Bleda syndactylus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lesser Bristlebill Bleda notatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green-backed Bulbul Criniger chloronotus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-tailed Bulbul Criniger calurus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bearded Bulbul Criniger ndussumensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-spotted Nicator Nicator chloris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Warbler Poliolais lopezi resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Yellow Longbill Macrosphenus flavicans resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Longbill Macrosphenus concolor resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Hylia Hylia prasina resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-capped Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus herberti resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-crowned Eremomela Eremomela badiceps resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Crombec Sylvietta virens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lemon-bellied Crombec Sylvietta denti resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blackcap Illadopsis Illadopsis cleaveri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Illadopsis Illadopsis fulvescens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-chested Babbler Kakamega poliothorax resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Hill Babbler Pseudoalcippe abyssinica resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mount Cameroon Speirops Speirops melanocephalus resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Purple-headed Glossy-starling Lamprotornis purpureiceps resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Waller's Starling Onychognathus walleri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-winged Starling Onychognathus fulgidus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Narrow-tailed Starling Poeoptera lugubris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Crossley's Ground-thrush Zoothera crossleyi resident  2000  present  A1, A3  Near Threatened 
White-tailed Ant-thrush Neocossyphus poensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous Flycatcher-thrush Stizorhina fraseri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-eared Ground-thrush Zoothera camaronensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Alethe diademata resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Forest Robin Stiphrornis erythrothorax resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Robin-chat Cossyphicula roberti resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mountain Robin-chat Cossypha isabellae resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Blue-shouldered Robin-chat Cossypha cyanocampter resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Forest Flycatcher Fraseria ocreata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-browed Forest Flycatcher Fraseria cinerascens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sooty Flycatcher Muscicapa infuscata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olivaceous Flycatcher Muscicapa olivascens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-footed Flycatcher Muscicapa sethsmithi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky-blue Flycatcher Muscicapa comitata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cassin's Grey Flycatcher Muscicapa cassini resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scarlet-tufted Sunbird Anthreptes fraseri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mouse-brown Sunbird Anthreptes gabonicus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Violet-tailed Sunbird Anthreptes aurantium resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Sunbird Anthreptes rectirostris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Little Green Sunbird Nectarinia seimundi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bates's Sunbird Nectarinia batesi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Reichenbach's Sunbird Nectarinia reichenbachii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cameroon Sunbird Nectarinia oritis resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Blue-throated Brown Sunbird Nectarinia cyanolaema resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Carmelite Sunbird Nectarinia fuliginosa resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green-throated Sunbird Nectarinia rubescens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ursula's Sunbird Nectarinia ursulae resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Northern Double-collared Sunbird Nectarinia preussi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Tiny Sunbird Nectarinia minulla resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Johanna's Sunbird Nectarinia johannae resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Superb Sunbird Nectarinia superba resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bates's Weaver Ploceus batesi resident  2000  unknown  A2, A3  Endangered 
Black-billed Weaver Ploceus melanogaster resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Vieillot's Black Weaver Ploceus nigerrimus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Maxwell's Black Weaver Ploceus albinucha resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Preuss's Weaver Ploceus preussi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-capped Weaver Ploceus insignis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-vented Malimbe Malimbus scutatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Gray's Malimbe Malimbus nitens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Crested Malimbe Malimbus malimbicus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-headed Malimbe Malimbus rubricollis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Woodhouse's Antpecker Parmoptila woodhousei resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-breasted Negrofinch Nigrita fusconotus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-breasted Negrofinch Nigrita bicolor resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pale-fronted Negrofinch Nigrita luteifrons resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fernando Po Oliveback Nesocharis shelleyi resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Red-faced Crimson-wing Cryptospiza reichenovii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Western Bluebill Spermophaga haematina resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Thick-billed Seedeater Serinus burtoni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Oriole Finch Linurgus olivaceus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Babules Forest Reserve 49,196 protected area overlaps with site 20,000  
Bambuko Forest Reserve 24,151 protected area contained by site 24,151  
Etinde Wildlife Reserve 18,577 protected area contained by site 18,577  
Mekonge Integral Ecological Reserve 2,644 protected area contained by site 2,644  
Mokoko River Forest Reserve 9,447 protected area contained by site 9,447  
Mont Cameroun National Park 58,178 protected area overlaps with site 0  
Wo' onge Wildlife Sanctuary 7,474 protected area contained by site 7,474  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Lowland forest - dry evergreen; Lowland forest - mixed moist evgn & semi-evgn; Mid-altitude forest - transitional  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
forestry -
hunting -

Other biodiversity Two shrews (Crocidura eisentrauti (CR), Sylvisorex morio (EN)) and a rodent Lophuromys roseveari are (on present evidence) endemic to the mountain; the shrews are unlikely to be endangered. Large mammals of conservation concern include Mandrillus leucophaeus (EN), Cercopithecus preussi (EN) (still locally common) and Loxodonta africana (EN), now seriously threatened. Among butterflies, Charaxes musakensis is known from nowhere else. There is a high level of plant endemism (possibly as many as 49 endemic species).

Further web sources of information 

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This site has been identified as an AZE due to it containing a Critically Endangered or Endangered species with a limited range.

References Cable and Cheek (1998), Dowsett et al. (2001), Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett (2001b), Eisentraut (1973), Serle (1950, 1954, 1965), Stuart (1986), Thomas and Cheek (1992).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife