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Location Italy, Toscana
Central coordinates 10o 20.00' East  42o 48.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Area 20,760 ha
Altitude 0 - 1,000m
Year of IBA assessment 2000

Lega Italiana Protezione Uccelli

Site description A complex of seven small islands between Tuscany and Corse (Montecristo, Giannutri, Gorgona, Capraia, Elba, Giglio e Pianosa). They are mainly covered by maquis, garrigue, sclerophyllous scrub, pine woodlands and have many rocky cliffs. Some have evergreen woodlands, grasslands and agricultural land. The main land-uses are tourism, fishing, boating and agriculture.

Key Biodiversity The islands support five of the 21 species of the Mediterranean biome, as well as breeding Calonectris diomedea, Puffinus yelkouan and Larus audouinii, among other seabirds.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Calonectris diomedea breeding  1994  100-800 breeding pairs  medium  B1ii, B2, C2, C6  Not Recognised 
Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan breeding  1994  200-1,000 breeding pairs  medium  A4ii, B1ii, C2  Vulnerable 
European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis resident  1994  20-25 breeding pairs  good  C6  Least Concern 
Falco peregrinus resident  1994  15-25 breeding pairs  good  B2, C6  Not Recognised 
Larus michahellis resident  1994  10,000 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, C3  Not Recognised 
Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii resident  1994  50-85 breeding pairs  good  A1, C1, C6  Near Threatened 
Spectacled Warbler Sylvia conspicillata breeding  1994  10-100 breeding pairs  medium  A3  Least Concern 
Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala resident  1994  1,000 breeding pairs  medium  A3  Least Concern 
Subalpine Warbler Sylvia cantillans breeding  1994  800 breeding pairs  medium  A3, B3  Least Concern 
Dartford Warbler Sylvia undata resident  1994  500 breeding pairs  medium  B2, C6  Near Threatened 
Marmora's Warbler Sylvia sarda resident  1994  80-150 breeding pairs  medium  A3, B3, C6  Least Concern 
Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica breeding  1994  10-30 breeding pairs  medium  A3  Least Concern 
Blue Rock-thrush Monticola solitarius resident  1994  100-200 breeding pairs  medium  B2  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Elba orientale - IT5160102 Birds Directive 4,687 protected area contained by site 4,687  
Formiche di Grosseto - IT51A0022 Birds Directive 12 protected area contained by site 12  
Isola del Giglio - IT51A0023 Birds Directive 2,094 protected area contained by site 2,094  
Isola di Capraia - area terrestre e marina - IT5160007 Birds Directive 18,403 protected area overlaps with site 2,693  
Isola di Capraia - IT5160006 Habitats Directive 1,886 protected area contained by site 1,886  
Isola di Giannutri - area terrestre e marina - IT51A0037 Birds Directive 11,022 protected area overlaps with site 1,258  
Isola di Giannutri - IT51A0024 Habitats Directive 231 protected area contained by site 231  
Isola di Gorgona - area terrestre e marina - IT5160015 Birds Directive 14,818 protected area overlaps with site 926  
Isola di Gorgona - IT5160002 Habitats Directive 210 protected area contained by site 210  
Isola di Montecristo - IT5160014 Habitats Directive 1,042 protected area contained by site 1,042  
Isola di Montecristo e Formica di Montecristo - area terrestre e marina - IT5160017 Birds Directive 15,483 protected area overlaps with site 2,530  
Isola di Pianosa - area terrestre e marina - IT5160016 Birds Directive 5,498 protected area overlaps with site 2,415  
Isola di Pianosa - IT5160013 Habitats Directive 997 protected area contained by site 997  
Isole di Cerboli e Palmaiola - IT5160011 Birds Directive 21 protected area contained by site 21  
Monte Capanne e promontorio dell'Enfola - IT5160012 Birds Directive 6,756 protected area contained by site 6,756  
Parco nazionale dell' Arcipelago Toscano National Park 73,622 protected area contains site 28,000  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Native coniferous woodland  15%
Shrubland Sclerophyllous scrub, garrigue and maquis  45%
Grassland   5%
Wetlands (inland)   1%
Coastline Sea cliffs and rocky shores  7%
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land; Other urban and industrial areas  27%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 15%
tourism/recreation 5%
fisheries/aquaculture 5%
nature conservation and research 100%

Protection status National High International Low28,000 ha of IBA covered by National Park (Arcipelago Toscano, 67,500 ha). 500 ha of IBA covered by Special Protection Area (Isola di Capraia, 500 ha).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2015) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Tuscan Archipelago. Downloaded from on 06/05/2015

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife