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Location Australia, Victoria
Central coordinates 144o 16.89' East  36o 47.22' South
IBA criteria A1
Area 50,578 ha
Altitude 130 - 380m
Year of IBA assessment 2009

BirdLife Australia

Summary The IBA supports significant numbers of non-breeding Swift Parrots (endangered) in suitable flowering conditions. The IBA also supports small numbers of the near threatened Diamond Firetail and non-breeding Flame Robin.

Site description This IBA includes all the box-ironbark woodland remnants that are significant for Swift Parrots in the Bendigo region of central Victoria (as defined by Kennedy and Tzaros 2005). This is situated between the Maryborough-Dunolly and the Rushworth Box-Ironbark Region IBAs. Where only one area within a forest patch is known to be significant the whole patch is included, as this the usual management unit and Swift Parrots are likely to use the remaining woodland in smaller numbers or less regularly. This IBA ranges from Kamarooka in the north to south of Castlemaine, including the following remnants (with land-ownership status): Sandon (SF), Strangways (private), Lockwood (SF), Muckleford-Maldon (Muckleford NCR and Maldon SF), Shelbourne (NCR), Diamond Hill-Mandurang-Sedgwick (Bendigo NP, Mandurang SF, Diamond Hill HR, Spring Gully Reservoir and Sedgwick SF), Pilchers Bridge-Lyell (Pilchers Bridge NCR and Lyell SF), Whipstick (NP), Wellsford (Regional Park, Mt Sugarloaf NCR and SF) and Kamarooka (NP; the whole of Kamarooka forest is taken in its entirety for its population of Diamond Firetails and Purple-gaped Honeyeaters). Other adjacent areas of woodland are dominated by trees less suitable for these bird species and are excluded from the IBA, although these areas are still important for other woodland birds and support small numbers of the key IBA species. Most of the IBA is within protected areas or state forests, with only small forest blocks on private land.

Key Biodiversity Occasional records of the endangered Regent Honeyeater. Other declining woodland birds including Brown Treecreeper, Speckled Warbler, Hooded Robin, Grey-crowned Babbler, Crested Bellbird and Gilbert's Whistler; and occasional records of migrant Black Honeyeater and Pink Robin. White-gaped Honeyeater is uncommon in Whipstick and Kamarooka NPs (Tzaros 2005). A single sighting of the vulnerable Painted Honeyeater in Atlas surveys from 1998 to 2008.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor non-breeding  1996-2008  230-1,100 individuals  medium  A1  Critically Endangered 
Flame Robin Petroica phoenicea non-breeding  1998-2008  uncommon  A1  Near Threatened 
Diamond Firetail Stagonopleura guttata resident  1998-2008  frequent  A1  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2008 high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: large scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Ascot Natural Features Reserve - Bushland Reserve 1 protected area contained by site 1  
Greater Bendigo National Park 17,020 protected area overlaps with site 8,835  
Mount Sugarloaf Nature Conservation Reserve 660 protected area contained by site 660  
Muckleford Nature Conservation Reserve 543 protected area contained by site 543  
Muckleford I135 Natural Features Reserve - Bushland Reserve 20 protected area contained by site 0  
Muckleford I136 Natural Features Reserve - Bushland Reserve 82 protected area contained by site 0  
Nerring I150 Natural Features Reserve - Bushland Reserve 8 protected area contained by site 8  
Pilchers Bridge Nature Conservation Reserve 2,264 protected area contained by site 626  
Rise and Shine Natural Features Reserve - Bushland Reserve 118 protected area contained by site 118  
Shelbourne Nature Conservation Reserve 840 protected area contained by site 840  
Whipstick Nature Conservation Reserve 83 protected area contained by site 83  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Eucalypt woodlands  major

Land ownership Protected areas and state forests are owned and managed by state government; the IBA also contains small areas of private land.

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research major
forestry major

Protection status Greater Bendigo National Park and numerous smaller but significant bushland and conservation reserves (see separate section for details).

Access/Land-Owner requests Some of the forest remnants are on private land without public access.

Acknowledgements Gary Cheers, Ian Davidson, Simon Kennedy and Chris Tzaros provided data and comments.

References Environment Conservation Council (2001) Box-ironbark forests and woodlands investigation. Final report. Melbourne: Environment Conservation Council.

Johnson, G. and Baker-Gabb, D. (1994) The Bush Stone-curlew in Northern Victoria (Part 1): Conservation and Management. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series No. 129. Melbourne: Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Kennedy, S. (2001) Swift Parrots. Results of winter surveys on mainland Australia, 1995-2000. Melbourne: Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Kennedy, S. (2000) Swift Parrot priority foraging and roost sites in Central Victoria. Bendigo, Victoria: Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Kennedy, S.J. and Tzaros, C.L. (2005) Foraging ecology of the Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor in the box-ironbark forests and woodlands of Victoria. Pacific Conservation Biology 11: 158-173.

Tzaros, C. (2005) Wildlife of the box-ironbark country. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Bendigo Box-Ironbark Region. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016

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