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Location United Kingdom, North,Scotland
Central coordinates 3o 29.22' West  54o 54.22' North
IBA criteria A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Area 45,480 ha
Altitude 0 - 45m
Year of IBA assessment 2007

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds



Site description One of the largest and most important areas of continuous intertidal habitat in Britain. The system is a dynamic one, with shifting channels undergoing phases of erosion and accretion. The IBA is important for wintering wildfowl and waders.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Northern Pintail Anas acuta passage  2001-2006  4,352 individuals  good  B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Northern Pintail Anas acuta winter  2001-2006  6,127 individuals  good  B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus winter  2001-2006  7,159 individuals  good  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis passage  2001-2006  10,731 individuals  good  A4i, B1i, C2  Least Concern 
Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis winter  2001-2006  9,660 individuals  good  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus winter  2001-2006  280 individuals  good  B1i, B3, C2  Least Concern 
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna passage  2001-2006  4,271 individuals  good  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Greater Scaup Aythya marila passage  2001-2006  1,724 individuals  good  B2  Least Concern 
Greater Scaup Aythya marila winter  2001-2006  3,196 individuals  good  B1i, B2, C3  Least Concern 
Haematopus ostralegus passage  2001-2006  43,784 individuals  good  A4i, B1i, C3  Not Recognised 
Haematopus ostralegus winter  2001-2006  43,852 individuals  good  A4i, B1i, C3  Not Recognised 
Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria passage  2001-2006  3,943 individuals  good  C6  Least Concern 
Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria winter  2001-2006  3,793 individuals  good  C6  Least Concern 
Common Redshank Tringa totanus passage  2001-2006  2,825 individuals  good  B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Common Redshank Tringa totanus winter  2001-2006  2,697 individuals  good  B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica passage  2001-2006  778 individuals  good  B2  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica winter  2001-2006  1,657 individuals  good  B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata passage  2001-2006  2,979 individuals  good  B2  Near Threatened 
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata winter  2001-2006  3,561 individuals  good  A4i, B1i, B2, C3  Near Threatened 
Red Knot Calidris canutus passage  2001-2006  5,030 individuals  good  B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Red Knot Calidris canutus winter  2001-2006  10,934 individuals  good  A4i, B1i, B2, C3  Least Concern 
Dunlin Calidris alpina passage  2001-2006  8,966 individuals  good  B2  Least Concern 
Dunlin Calidris alpina winter  2001-2006  14,444 individuals  good  B1i, B2, C3  Least Concern 
Larus argentatus breeding  1999-2000  7,211 breeding pairs  good  B1i, C3  Not Recognised 
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus breeding  1999-2000  2,402 breeding pairs  good  A4i, B1i, B3, C3  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds passage  2001-2006  73,536 individuals  good  A4iii, C4   
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  2001-2006  100,615 individuals  good  A4iii, C4   

IBA Monitoring

2007 high unfavourable medium
Population
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification marine and freshwater aquaculture - industrial aquaculture happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration likely in long term (beyond 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Energy production and mining renewable energy likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - large dams likely in short term (within 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Anas acuta Northern Pintail 1890 6127 individuals 100 favourable
Anser brachyrhynchus Pink-footed Goose 10800 7159 individuals 67 unfavourable
Branta leucopsis Barnacle Goose 12700 9660 individuals 77 near favourable
Cygnus cygnus Whooper Swan 115 280 individuals 100 favourable
Aythya marila Greater Scaup 2210 3196 individuals 100 favourable
Haematopus ostralegus 35200 43784 individuals 100 favourable
Haematopus ostralegus 36800 43852 individuals 100 favourable
Pluvialis apricaria Eurasian Golden Plover 5550 3793 individuals 69 unfavourable
Pluvialis apricaria Eurasian Golden Plover 4190 3943 individuals 95 favourable
Charadrius hiaticula Common Ringed Plover 1080 490 individuals 46 unfavourable
Tringa totanus Common Redshank 3250 2825 individuals 87 near favourable
Tringa totanus Common Redshank 2790 2697 individuals 97 favourable
Limosa lapponica Bar-tailed Godwit 2550 1657 individuals 65 unfavourable
Limosa lapponica Bar-tailed Godwit 1690 778 individuals 47 unfavourable
Numenius arquata Eurasian Curlew 5250 2979 individuals 57 unfavourable
Numenius arquata Eurasian Curlew 6250 3561 individuals 57 unfavourable
Calidris canutus Red Knot 13200 10934 individuals 83 near favourable
Calidris canutus Red Knot 4350 5030 individuals 100 favourable
Calidris alpina Dunlin 14800 14444 individuals 98 favourable
Calidris alpina Dunlin 6400 8966 individuals 100 favourable
Larus argentatus 610 7211 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Larus fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull 2000 2402 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Species group - waterbirds A4iii 127785 100615 individuals 79 near favourable
Species group - waterbirds A4iii 70949 73536 individuals 100 favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A management plan exists but it is out of date or not comprehensive  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve 8,185 protected area contained by site 7,706  
Solway Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty 11,500 protected area overlaps with site 11,500  
Solway Firth Habitats Directive 43,637 protected area contained by site 43,637  
Upper Solway Flats and Marshes Birds Directive 43,637 protected area contained by site 43,637  
Upper Solway Flats and Marshes Site of Special Scientific Interest 29,950 protected area contained by site 29,950  
Upper Solway Flats and Marshes Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 43,637 protected area contained by site 30,706  
Upper Solway Flats and Marshes (Scotland) Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) 0 protected area contained by site 16,165  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Grassland Humid grasslands  5%
Wetlands (inland) Mud flats and sand flats; Salt marshes; Tidal rivers and enclosed tidal waters  85%
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land; Highly improved re-seeded landscapes  10%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 10%
fisheries/aquaculture 80%
nature conservation and research -

Related state of the world's birds case studies

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Upper Solway Flats and Marshes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife