Sites - Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs)
email a friend
Kauai Forests and Uplands
159o 33.60' West 22o 4.20' North
A1, A2, A4i, A4ii
0 - 1,598m
Year of IBA assessment
Site description The Kaua`i Forests and Uplands Important Bird Area occupies most of the central and northwestern portions of Kaua`i and contains most of the native forest and intact upland habitats remaining on the island. It is 77,420 hectares (191,227 acres) in size and extends from sea level along the northwestern coastline to the highest summits, Wai`ale`ale at 1569 meters (5148 feet) and Kawaikini at 1598 meters (5243 feet). The core of the area is the broad Alaka`i Plateau that slopes gradually downward from east to west. The terrain is extremely rugged, with deep canyons eroded into the plateau on all sides, including spectacular Waimea and Olokele Canyons on the south and the dramatic Na Pali coastline on the northwest. These canyons contain numerous waterfalls, isolated hanging valleys, and precipitous cliffs over 600 meters (2000 feet) high. Annual rainfall ranges from about one meter (39.3 inches) in the southwest to 11.5 meters (450 inches) near the summit of Wai`ale`ale, one of the wettest spots on earth. Even the relatively flat Alaka`i Plateau is etched with innumerable streams and narrow gulches that make pedestrian access challenging. Much of the area is covered in dense forest and montane shrubland. Bogs with stunted vegetation occupy some depressions in the plateau. The higher elevations contain some of the most intact native ecosystems in Hawai`i, but invasive alien plants dominate much of the lowlands. The area includes the State Alaka`i Wilderness Preserve, the State Hono `O Na Pali and Kuia Natural Area Reserves, all or part of the Halelea, Moloa`a, Na Pali-Kona, Kealia, Pu`u Ka Pele, and Lihue-Koloa State Forest Reserves, Koke`e, Waimea Canyon, Haena, Na Pali Coast, and Polihale State Parks, Wailua, Kekaha, and Mokihana State Game Management Areas, and The Nature Conservancy?s Kana`ele Preserve.
Key Biodiversity The Kaua`i Forests and Uplands IBA supports one of the greatest concentrations of endemic Hawaiian forest birds, including the entire population of several species that are endangered or of global conservation concern. The endangered Puaiohi numbers about 400 birds and nests only on cliffs along narrow streams where it is safe from predators. The `Akikiki or Kaua`i Creeper and the `Akeke`e or Kaua`i `Akepa number about 1,312 and 3,536 individuals, respectively. Both are declining and were recently petitioned for listing. The Kaua`i `Amakihi and `Anianiau are more numerous at about 40,000 individuals each, but are restricted to Kaua`i and are species of global conservation concern. `I`iwi and `Elepaio occur on other islands but are somewhat less numerous at about 10,000 and 23,000 individuals and are also species of global concern. The remote forests of the upper `Alaka`i are the last possible refuge for several extremely rare endemic birds, the Kama`o, Kaua`i `O`o, Nukupu`u, and `O`u. These species have not been observed for 10-20 years and may be extinct, but if they still survive it is somewhere in the Kaua`i Forests and Uplands IBA. Their status cannot be known with certainty until the most remote areas of Kaua`i have been adequately searched.
The remote mountains and steep slopes of Kaua`i provide vital breeding sites for several seabirds, including threatened Newell's Shearwater, endangered Hawaiian Petrel, which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, Band-rumped Storm-petrel, which is a candidate for listing, and White-tailed Tropicbird. The number of birds is difficult to estimate and the location of most colonies is unknown, but populations have declined recently and some former colonies have been extirpated. Kauai`i supports the vast majority of nesting Newell's Shearwaters. The endangered Nene or Hawaiian Goose was reintroduced to Kaua`i in 1985, and one population of about 80 individuals uses the northwestern edge of the area along the Na Pali coast.
Poor - based on little, or potentially unreliable/unrepresentative, data
Invasive and other problematic species and genes
invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species
majority/most of area/population (50-90%)
moderate to rapid deterioration
Residential and commercial development
commercial and industrial development
some of area/population (10-49%)
slow but significant deterioration
Some of site covered (10-49%)
Some limited conservation initiatives are in place
Land ownership The majority of lands comprising the Kaua`i Forests and Uplands IBA are owned by the State of Hawai`i (62%), with the remainder being privately owned lands that are administered by the State of Hawai`i as forest reserves (38%), and less than 1% owned by The Nature Conservancy of Hawai`i. State lands include the Alaka`i Wilderness Preserve (6%), the Hono O Na Pali and Kuia Natural Area Reserves (2%), all or parts of the Halelea, Moloa`a, Na Pali-Kona, Kealia, Pu`u Ka Pele, and Lihue-Koloa State Forest Reserves (36%), Koke`e, Waimea Canyon, Haena, Na Pali Coast, and Polihale State Parks (7%), and the Wailua, Kekaha, and Mokihana State Game Management Areas (11%)
Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research
Contribute Please click here to
help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital
for helping protect the environment.
BirdLife International (2015) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Kauai Forests and Uplands. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 03/03/2015
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife