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Location Tonga, Vava'u
Central coordinates 174o 39.00' West  18o 48.20' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii
Area 1,730 ha
Altitude 0 - 565m
Year of IBA assessment 2007

Site description The Late IBA comprises the whole island of Late, an uninhabited 15 sq km island which rises to 565m. It is volcanically active but has been dormant since 1854. Late has some of the finest forest to be found in Tonga and is a global stronghold of the threatened friendly ground-dove Gallicolumba stairi and the endemic Tongan whistler Pachycephala jacquinoti. A translocation attempt of the Tongan megapode Megapodius pritchardii to Late in was made in 1992, an initial positive report (1997) was not confirmed by searches at the translocation site in 2003 and 2004. Late is also home to seven central Polynesian Restricted Range Species, as well as eleven species of seabird which are currently believed to breed on the island. Late is an isolated 6-km-wide circular island about 55 km WSW of the island of Vavau which rises to 565m. It is a stratovolcano lying along the Tofua volcanic arc containing a 400- m-wide, 150-m-deep summit crater with an ephemeral lake, and on its eastern flank there are two large pit craters, the lower of which is partially filled by a slightly-brackish lake. Late is volcanically active but has been dormant since 1854, although steam vents have been seen from time to time (Crane 1992). Late has some of the finest forest to be found in Tonga comprising a lowland broadleaf rain forest, with a canopy to 30 m with Alphitonia zizyphoides, Calophyllum neo-ebudicum Rhus taitensis, and Elattostachys falcata significant dominants on Late’s young volcanic soils (Sykes 1981). Casuarina equisetifolia dominates communities on newer ash deposits and lava flows, in the areaaround the crater and generally on thin soils, often with Pandanus tectorius, Syzygium dealatum, Hibiscus tiliaceus, and Scaevola taccada (Sykes 1981). Late was formerly inhabited but its inhabitants were moved to the mainland of Vava'u in the 1830s (?) to forestall the slave raiders who were raiding isolated islands at the time.

Key Biodiversity Late is particularly important for the conservation of the endemic Tongan whistler whose status on Vava’u gives rise for serious concern but appears secure on Late. The friendly ground-dove (Vulnerable; A1) is very common on the island, and Late clearly represents a major stronghold for this species in Tonga. 63 eggs of the Tongan megapode were translocated to the island in September, October 1992 (Goth pers. comm.) Adults were reportedly observed in late 1996 by a team from the Tongan Wildlife Centre (Beaudry et al. 1997), however, searches in 2003, 2004 found no megapodes or any signs of breeding activity, or elevated temperatures in the soils in the location where they were released in 1992 (Watling 2003, 2004). A further survey on the eastern side of the island is required to confirm the success or otherwise of the translocation. Late has eight (perhaps nine – the megapode) of the ten central Polynesian ‘restricted range species’ for which the Tongan Secondary Area (s130) was created (A2). Late is also important for its seabird breeding colonies, although these are poorly documented at the moment, however, it is very likely that combined they exceed 10,000 breeding pairs (A4iii), and that it may be a stronghold for tropical (Audubon's) shearwaters (A4ii).

Non-bird biodiversity: Late has some of the best remaining high diversity native forest in Tonga and still supports large populations of birds and reptiles (Steadman 1998). A plant list of 145 species was prepared by Sykes (1981), the highest island number for Tonga behind Tongatapu and ‘Eua. There is no published list of the reptiles of Late.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Puffinus lherminieri breeding  2004  1,500 breeding pairs  poor  A4ii  Not Recognised 
Ptilinopus porphyraceus breeding  2004  common  A2  Not Recognised 
Shy Ground-dove Alopecoenas stairi breeding  2004  common  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Many-coloured Fruit-dove Ptilinopus perousii breeding  2004  common  A2  Least Concern 
Blue-crowned Lorikeet Vini australis breeding  1990  uncommon  A2  Least Concern 
Maroon Shining-parrot Prosopeia tabuensis breeding  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 
Wattled Honeyeater Foulehaio carunculatus breeding  2004  common  A2  Least Concern 
Polynesian Triller Lalage maculosa breeding  2004  common  A2  Least Concern 
Tongan Whistler Pachycephala jacquinoti breeding  2004  common  A1, A2  Near Threatened 
Polynesian Starling Aplonis tabuensis breeding  2004  common  A2  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - seabirds breeding  2004  10,000 breeding pairs  poor  A4iii   

IBA Monitoring

2007 high not assessed not assessed

Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species likely in short term (within 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration high


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Lowland evergreen rain forest (tropical)  90%
Wetlands (inland) Freshwater lakes and pools  1%
Savanna   9%

References Beaudry, J., F. Tutu’alao, L.Matavalea. 1997. Report on bird survey to Fonualei and Late, September-October 1996. Unpubl. Report. Tongan Wildlife Centre, Tongatapu. Crane, W. 1992. The Environment of Tonga: A Geography Resource. Wendy Crane Books, Lower Hutt. Prescott, N. and P. S. Folaumoetu’I (Editors). 2004. Tonga Biodiversity Stocktaking. Technical Report 1 for the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Dept. of Environment, Nuku’alofa. Rinke, D. 1986. Notes on the avifauna of Niuafo’ou Island, Kingdom of Tonga. Emu 86:145-151. 1991. Birds of ‘Ata and Late, and additional notes on the avifauna of Niuafo’ou Island, Kingdom of Tonga. Notornis 38: 131-151. Stattersfield, A.J., M.J. Crosby, A.J. Long, and D.C. Wege. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for biodiversity conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series no. 7, BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. 846 pp. Steadman, D.W. 1998. Status of land birds on selected islands in the Ha’apai Group, Kingdom of Tonga. Pacific Science 52:14-34. Sykes, W.R. 1981. The vegetation of Late Island, Tonga. Allertonia 2:323-353. Watling, D. 2003. Report on a Visit to Late and Fonualei Islands, Vava'u Group, Kingdom of Tonga. Unpublished Report to the Van Tienhoven Foundation. Watling, D. 2004. Report on a Visit to Late Island, Vava'u Group, Kingdom of Tonga. Unpublished Report to the Van Tienhoven Foundation.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Late. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016

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