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Location Uganda
Central coordinates 30o 57.90' East  1o 15.30' North
IBA criteria A1, A3
Area 65,000 ha
Altitude 990 - 1,300m
Year of IBA assessment 2008

NatureUganda



Summary The classification system of the forest identifies Bugoma as a medium altitude moist semi-deciduous forest with a high biodiversity (Forest Department, 1996). The forest is secluded from other protected areas and has a central coordinate of 300571E and 10161N. It is bordered by smallholdings and faces increased pressure from settlement especially from immigrants. The forest is important not only for birds but for other biodiversity too as seen it its ability to hold and support other wildlife. This would be very important information for qualification to the Key Biodiversity Areas process.

Site description Bugoma Central Forest Reserve is situated on top of escarpment east of and overlooking Lake Albert on the edge of the Western Rift valley between 10071 and 10251N, 300481 and 310071E. It lies to the west of and midway along the main Kyenjojo – Hoima highway, approximately 10km South West of Hoima and 10 Km east of Lake Albert. The forest lies in Buhaguzi and Bugahya counties in the administrative district of Hoima. Most of the forested portion lies in the sub counties of Kabwoya and Kyangwali. To the South is Nkusi River forming the boundary of the reserve and the adjacent Kibale district. To the North Eastern are Bajawe and Wababya central forest reserves whose patches are continuous with Kinyara sugar plantation that reaches Budongo forest Reserve. To the West, is Kanyangwali Refugee Camp that meets the low land of the rift valley. It occupies about 40, 100 ha and has an altitudinal range of 990-1300m above sea level. The forest type is classified as medium altitude moist semi-deciduous forest with a high biodiversity (Forest Department, 1996). It occupies a gently sloping area, which drains towards Lake Albert in the west. There is only one permanent river, the Nkusi, which forms the southern boundary. The forest is isolated from other protected areas and surrounded by smallholdings and settlement. The soils are mostly deep tropical red earths often lateritic and the climate is tropical with two rainfall peaks from April to May and September to November. Annual mean temperature ranges are 16 to 180C (minimum) and 28 to 290C. The annual rainfall is between 1100 and 1350mm. The forest lies in irregular blocks intersected by large patches of Hyparrhenia, Pennisetum and Cymbopogon grasslands occupying approximately 18% of the forest area. About half of the forested portion is dominated by iron wood (Crynometra alexandri), a further 38% is mixed Forest. From the 65 forested Protected Areas surveyed for biodiversity in Uganda, Bugoma ranked eleventh in overall biodiversity value and fifteenth in terms of rarity value.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Trachyphonus purpuratus resident  2008  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Speckled Tinkerbird Pogoniulus scolopaceus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-throated Tinkerbird Pogoniulus subsulphureus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-spotted Barbet Buccanodon duchaillui resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hairy-breasted Barbet Tricholaema hirsuta resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Nahan's Partridge Ptilopachus nahani resident  2008  present  A1, A3  Endangered 
Forest Francolin Peliperdix lathami resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Afep Pigeon Columba unicincta resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Psittacus erithacus resident  2008  present  A1, A3  Not Recognised 
White-crested Turaco Tauraco leucolophus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx mechowi resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx olivinus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Caprimulgus nigriscapularis resident  2008  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Blue-throated Roller Eurystomus gularis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chocolate-backed Kingfisher Halcyon badia resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black Bee-eater Merops gularis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Forest Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus castaneiceps resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-cheeked Hornbill Bycanistes subcylindricus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cassin's Honeybird Prodotiscus insignis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Buff-spotted Woodpecker Campethera nivosa resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-eared Woodpecker Campethera caroli resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Speckle-breasted Woodpecker Dendropicos poecilolaemus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-crested Woodpecker Dendropicos xantholophus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green-breasted Pitta Pitta reichenowi resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Shrike-flycatcher Megabyas flammulatus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut Wattle-eye Platysteira castanea resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Jameson's Wattle-eye Platysteira jamesoni resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-green Bush-shrike Telophorus bocagei resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Western Black-headed Oriole Oriolus brachyrhynchus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-headed Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone rufiventer resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Tit Parus funereus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Apalis rufogularis resident  2008  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Yellow-browed Camaroptera Camaroptera superciliaris resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive-green Camaroptera Camaroptera chloronota resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Greenbul Andropadus gracilis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Greenbul Andropadus gracilirostris resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Honeyguide Greenbul Baeopogon indicator resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Spotted Greenbul Ixonotus guttatus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Leaf-love Pyrrhurus scandens resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Toro Olive Greenbul Phyllastrephus hypochloris resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Greenbul Phyllastrephus albigularis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Icterine Greenbul Phyllastrephus icterinus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Xavier's Greenbul Phyllastrephus xavieri resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Common Bristlebill Bleda syndactylus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-tailed Bulbul Criniger calurus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow Longbill Macrosphenus flavicans resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Longbill Macrosphenus concolor resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Hylia Hylia prasina resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Crombec Sylvietta virens resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scaly-breasted Illadopsis Illadopsis albipectus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Illadopsis Illadopsis fulvescens resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Purple-headed Glossy-starling Lamprotornis purpureiceps resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Ant-thrush Neocossyphus poensis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-eared Ground-thrush Zoothera camaronensis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Alethe diademata resident  2008  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Forest Robin Stiphrornis erythrothorax resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-shouldered Robin-chat Cossypha cyanocampter resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Forest Flycatcher Fraseria ocreata resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sooty Flycatcher Muscicapa infuscata resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-throated Tit-flycatcher Myioparus griseigularis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Little Green Sunbird Nectarinia seimundi resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-throated Brown Sunbird Nectarinia cyanolaema resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green-throated Sunbird Nectarinia rubescens resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Superb Sunbird Nectarinia superba resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Vieillot's Black Weaver Ploceus nigerrimus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-mantled Weaver Ploceus tricolor resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Crested Malimbe Malimbus malimbicus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-headed Malimbe Malimbus rubricollis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-breasted Negrofinch Nigrita fusconotus resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis resident  2008  present  A3  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Bugoma Central Forest Reserve Forest Reserve 40,100 is identical to site 40,100  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Grassland Grassland - secondary  18%
Forest Mid-altitude forest - transitional  82%

Land ownership The forest is a central forest managed by the National Forest Authority on behalf of the state. This therefore means that the Forest Reserve is owned by the Government of Uganda in trust of the people. Various conservation programmes especially that of ECOTRUST are promoting conservation of the forest by involving the communities in livelihood improvement projects.

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry major
Notes: The forest is under the management of NFA whose prime landuse is forestry. A nature reserve has been established in the forest, a good drive towards conservation.

Other biodiversity In addition to birds, Bugoma Central Forest Reserve is also important for other biodiversity, which would contribute to the information for qualification to the Key Biodiversity Areas process. There are a number of tree and mammal species that are listed in IUCN Red Data Books. There are 38 species of mammals of which 4 are globally threatened and 9 species listed in IUCN red list. It has 9 species of reptiles, 20 species of amphibians of which one is an Albertine Rift endemic. Also has 257 species of trees and shrubs of which 7 are Albertine Rift endemics, 12 are globally threatened and 14 listed in IUCN red list. There are 225 species of birds with two globally threatened species (Nahan’s Francolin and Grey Parrot), 292 species of butterflies with 4 Albertine Rift species and 118 species of moths (Forest Department, 1996, Plumptre et al, 2003).

Protection status The forest is isolated from other protected area systems of Uganda but lies within the Albertine Rift region. The Forest Reserve has been cut off the Budongo forest range with Reserve patches of Bajawe and Wababya Forests being the only corridors remaining. Many small holder and large scale farming especially of sugar cane and tobacco coupled with increased population and demand for settlements are conservation issues that would undermine the protection status of the forest.

Access/Land-Owner requests The Forest Reserve is used for a number of activities. The major land use is forestry. The local communities access the reserve for fuel wood, poles and other resources. There is some illegal pit sawing going on within the reserve. The NFA continues to protect the forest for conservation purposes.

Acknowledgements NBDB - National Biodiversity Data Bank hosted by Makerere University Institute of Environment and Natural resources (provision of species list and supporting documents). WCS – Wildlife Conservation Society (provision of species list and supporting document).

References Fuller R, Akite P, Amuno JB, Flockart C, Ofwono JM, Proaktor G and Ssemmanda R (2004). Recovery of the Nahan’s Francolin: Decline of the globally threatened bird in the forests of Central Uganda. Forest Department (1996). The Biodiversity report on Bugoma Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. Plumptre, A.J. (2002). The Extent and Status of Forests in the Ugandan Albertine Rift. Report to UNDP/GEF PDFb process, Uganda. Plumptre, AJ., Behangana, M., Ndomba, E., Davenport, T., Kahindo, C., Kityo, R. Ssegawa, P., Eilu, G., Nkuutu, D. and Owiunji, I. (2003) The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Albertine Rift Technical Reports no. 3. Sande, E (2001) The ecology of Nahan,s Francolin in Budongo Forset Reserve, Uganda. PhD Thesis. Kampala (Makerere University).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Bugoma Central Forest Reserve. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/08/2014

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