|Location||Australia, South Australia|
|Central coordinates||140o 11.63' East 27o 5.96' South|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3, A4i|
|Altitude||25 - 120m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2009|
Summary These lakes have supported more than 1% of the world populations of 12 species of waterbird and shorebird but data are sparse. It also supports populations of the vulnerable Australian Painted Snipe, the near threatened Blue-billed Duck, the restricted-range Eyrean Grasswren and five species restricted to the arid biome.
Site description This IBA is comprised of a large part of the Coongie Lakes National Park, centred on Lake Goolangirie (= Lake Goyder) and adjacent lakes of known waterbird importance, on the lower Cooper Creek system in north-east South Australia. The IBA could be extended to include the maximum extent of ephemerally flooded waterbodies and channels extending south across Innamincka Regional Reserve to the Strzelecki Desert Lakes IBA but there is inadequate survey data from most of this region. The Coongie Lakes system receives flows most years from Cooper Creek via its North West Branch which carries floodwaters to Tirrawarra Swamp and then north to the lakes. Lakes Coongie, Marroocoolcannie, Marroocutchanie, Toontoowaranie and Goyder fill regularly, whereas Lake Marradibbadibba is mainly dry. Other important lakes include Lakes Apanburra, Marradibbadibba, Lady Blanche, Sir Richard and Sturt Ponds. Cooper Creek is the longest and most important dryland river in Australia and one of the largest endorheic catchments in the world. The system consists of a series of channels and permanent and temporary waterholes with floodplains, gibber plains, sand plains and inland sand dunes. The vegetation consists of a mixture of grasses, herbs, open shrubland and open woodland, with grasses, herbs and low shrubs dominant in arid areas, and open woodland concentrated around channels, waterholes and areas of more frequent inundation. The soils are deep, cracking, grey clays (dry lake beds) and siliceous sands (dunefields). The IBA experiences an arid climate with warm to hot temperatures and mean annual rainfall of 100-150 mm. Over 100,000 waterbirds were estimated in the summers 1990/91, 1991/92, 1997/98, 2000/01 and 2001/02. The IBA is largely within the Innamincka Regional Reserve and wholly within the Coongie Lakes Ramsar site which covers almost 2 million hectares.
Key Biodiversity The first specimen of the critically endangered Night Parrot was collected in the Coongie Lakes System on Captain Charles Sturt's expedition in 1845, and there were two possible observations there in 1987 (Reid 2000a; J. Reid in litt. 2009). The region also supports numbers of the endangered Plains-wanderer (one record of two birds in 1976, Bennett 1983); the near threatened Letter-winged Kite (rare to uncommon breeding visitor; Cox and Pedler 1977; Badman 1989; J. Reid in litt. 2009), Grey Falcon (rare but has been recorded breeding; Badman 1989; J. Reid in litt. 2009; Atlas of Australian Birds database), Bush Thick-knee (presumed rare breeding resident based on a limited number of observations made over the past few decades; Badman and May 1983; Badman 1989; J. Reid in litt. 2009; S. Parker unpublished) and Painted Honeyeater (two records of passage birds; J. Reid in litt. 2009); the biome-restricted Black Honeyeater (uncommon; Atlas of Australian Birds database); and the uncommon Yellow Chat (several birds in grassy dry lake bed of Lake Toontoowaranie in 2003; J. Reid in litt. 2009). The IBA supports notable numbers of several other species including 3501 Australian Pratincole counted on Coongie Lakes system in November 1997 but estimated to be 7000 (Reid 2000b); 2500 Flock Bronzewing in Coongie Lakes in autumn 1987 (Reid 1988) with smaller numbers and breeding noted intermittently to 2003 including 400 in 2003 (J. Reid in litt. 2009); 12,000 Eurasian Coot and 7991 Hardhead in 2002 (Costelloe et al. 2004). Australian Painted Snipe, which is listed as nationally vulnerable, bred at Lake Toontoowaranie in 2002 (Costelloe et al. 2004).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa||resident||1982-2003||1,000 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Pink-eared Duck Malacorhynchus membranaceus||resident||1997-2002||74,115 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Maned Duck Chenonetta jubata||resident||1975-2002||20,209 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Grey Teal Anas gracilis||resident||1997-2002||37,000 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Blue-billed Duck Oxyura australis||unknown||2002||703 individuals||-||A1, A4i||Near Threatened|
|Royal Spoonbill Platalea regia||resident||2002||1,418 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Yellow-billed Spoonbill Platalea flavipes||resident||2002||1,153 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Australian Pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus||resident||1991-2002||100,000 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Great Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax varius||resident||2001-2002||14,000 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Australian Bustard Ardeotis australis||breeding||-||frequent||-||A1||Least Concern|
|Black-tailed Native-hen Tribonyx ventralis||resident||1997-2002||90,000 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Red-necked Avocet Recurvirostra novaehollandiae||unknown||1987-2003||16,703 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Red-kneed Dotterel Erythrogonys cinctus||breeding||1997||15,000 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Red-capped Plover Charadrius ruficapillus||resident||1982-2002||2,000 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Inland Dotterel Peltohyas australis||resident||1998-2008||uncommon||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata||non-breeding||2002||1,638-9,000 individuals||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Bourke's Parrot Neopsephotus bourkii||resident||2008||common||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Eyrean Grasswren Amytornis goyderi||resident||-||frequent||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Gibberbird Ashbyia lovensis||resident||-||uncommon||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Banded Whiteface Aphelocephala nigricincta||resident||2008||uncommon||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Chirruping Wedgebill Psophodes cristatus||resident||2008||common||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Cinnamon Quail-thrush Cinclosoma cinnamomeum||resident||2008||common||-||A3||Least Concern|
|2008||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data|
|Agricultural expansion and intensification||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - agro-industry grazing, ranching or farmin||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Invasive and other problematic species and genes||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Natural system modifications||dams & water management/use - small dams||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||whole area/population (>90%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Coongie Lakes||National Park||26,669||protected area overlaps with site||18,543|
|Coongie Lakes||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||1,980,000||protected area contains site||59,318|
|Innamincka||Regional Reserve||1,354,193||protected area overlaps with site||40,774|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Desert||Semi-desert (includes gibber plains)||minor|
|Savanna||Eucalypt open woodlands||minor|
|Wetlands (inland)||Ephemeral; Freshwater lakes & pools||major|
|Rocky areas||Inland cliffs||major|
|Shrubland||Acacia shrublands; Chenopod shrubs, samphire shrubs and forblands||minor|
Land ownership Coongie Lakes National Park is managed by the Department for Environment and Heritage. Most of the remaining land is under pastoral and mineral exploration leases.
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||major|
Protection status The IBA includes 66% of the Coongie Lakes National Park and a portion of the Innamincka Regional Reserve.
Acknowledgements Richard Kingsford, Julian Reid and Roger Jaensch provided data and advice.
References Badman, F.J. (1989) The Birds of Middle and Lower Cooper Creek in South Australia. Nature Conservation Society of South Australia: Adelaide.
Badman, F.J. and May, I.A. (1983) Waders in northern South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist 29: 29-39.
Baxter, C.I., Reid, J.R.W. and Jaensch, R.P. (2001) First South Australian records of the Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus and occurrence of vagrants in south-western Queensland. South Australian Ornithologist 33: 164-169.
Bennett, S. (1983) A review of the distribution, status and biology of the Plains Wanderer Pedionomus torquatus, Gould. Emu 83: 1-11.
Blakers, M., Davies, S.J.J.F. and Reilly, P.N. (1984) The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne University Press: Melbourne.
Costelloe J.F., Hudson P.J., Pritchard J.C., Puckridge J.T. and Reid, J.R.W. (2004). ARIDFLO Scientific Report: Environmental Flow Requirements of Arid Zone Rivers with Particular Reference to the Lake Eyre Drainage Basin. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide. Final Report to South Australian Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation and Commonwealth Department of Environment and Heritage.
Cox, J.B. and Pedler, L.P. (1977) Birds recorded during three visits to the far north-east of South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist 27: 231-250.
DEWHA (2008) A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia. Coongie Lakes - SA001. Accessed from http://www.environment.gov.au/water/publications/environmental/wetlands/database/ accessed August 2008.
Kingsford, R.T., Curtin, A.L. and Porter, J.L. (1999) Water flows on Cooper Creek in arid Australia determine boom and bust periods for waterbirds. Biological Conservation 88: 231-248.
May, I.A. (1982) Bird notes - Grey Grasswren. South Australian Ornithological Association Newsletter 102: 11.
May, I.A., Close, D.H. and Badman, F. (1982) Bird notes - Freckled Duck. South Australian Ornithological Association Newsletter 104: 6.
May, I.A. (1986) Appendix V: Birds of Innamincka Station. Pp. 123-137. In: Faithfull, E. (ed.) Rangeland Assessment Manual, Innamincka Station. Department of Lands, South Australia.
Parker, S.A. (1980) Birds and conservation parks in the north-east of South Australia. South Australian Parks and Conservation 3: 11-18.
Reid, J.R.W. (1984) [Bird Sections] In: Mollenmans F.H., Reid, J.R.W., Thompson, M.B., Alexander, L. and Pedler, L.P. Biological survey of the Cooper Creek Environmental Association (8.4.4), north eastern South Australia. Consultancy report to National Parks and Wildlife Service. Department of Environment and Planning: Adelaide.
Reid, J.R.W. (1988) Birds. In: Reid, J. and Gillen, J. (eds) (1988) The Coongie Lakes Study. Consultancy report for the Department of Environment and Planning: Adelaide.
Reid, J.R.W. (1992) Terrestrial monitoring of Coongie after flood. An assessment of the effects of flooding on the terrestrial biota in the Coongie Lakes District. Unpublished Final Report to the Reserves Advisory Committee of the National Parks and Wildlife.
Reid, J.R.W. (2000a) Birds of Cooper Creek and the Far North East in South Australia. Pp. 209-227. In: Collier, R., Hatch, J., Matheson, B. and Russell, T. (eds) Birds, birders and birding in South Australia. South Australian Ornithological Association: Adelaide.
Reid, J.R.W. (2000b) Waterbird, Riparian and Floodplain Ecology of the Coongie Lakes System, Cooper Creek, Central Australia. Volume 3 of Reid, J.R.W. & Puckridge, J.T. (eds) The Seasonal Ecology of the Coongie Lakes System and Cooper Creek Floodplain, Central Australia Unpublished report to the South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage and the Australian Heritage Commission.
Reid, J. and Jaensch, R. (1999) An Aerial Survey of Waterbirds in the Coongie Lakes System, December 1998. Report to the South Australian Department of Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs. Wetlands International - Oceania, Canberra.
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