|Location||Australia, South Australia|
|Central coordinates||137o 14.52' East 35o 49.68' South|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3, A4i|
|Altitude||0 - 310m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2009|
Summary Kangaroo Island supports moderate populations of the vulnerable Fairy Tern; the near threatened Bush Stone-curlew, Hooded Plover and Western Whipbird; and the biome-restricted Rock Parrot and Purple-gaped Honeyeater. It also supports more than 1% of the global population of Cape Barren Geese, Black-faced Cormorants, Pacific Gulls and Pied Oystercatchers, and sometimes more than 1% of the global population of Musk Duck, Freckled Duck, Australian Shelduck, Chestnut Teal and Banded Stilt.
Site description Kangaroo Island, the third largest island off Australia, is 12 km south of the Fleurieu Peninsula, south of Adelaide. The whole of Kangaroo Island and some very small inshore islands are taken as an IBA because the main bird values, the strong populations of Hooded Plovers and Bush Stone-curlews, are partly dependent on the island's isolation from foxes and other mainland threats. The island has poor soils and only about half is cleared for farmland, which is mostly grazed and suitable for stone-curlews, and 46% has tree or shrub cover (Ball & Carruthers 1998), which is mostly suitable for the strong population of Purple-gaped Honeyeaters. Other IBA bird species are scattered across the island in coastal mallee, inland lagoons and along the coast. The island is mainly elevated ironstone plateau with a limestone coastal belt and stunted mallee woodland growing on impoverished soils. The island has a Mediterranean climate, with most of the mean annual rainfall of 500-900 mm falling in the winter. About half of the island has been cleared for grazing, with small areas under other agriculture or residential and tourism development. The island has 28 terrestrial protected areas covering over 116,000 ha (25% of the island) and additional marine protected areas.
Key Biodiversity The extinct Kangaroo Island Emu was endemic to the island. There is an isolated population of a few hundred Glossy Black-Cockatoos and a number of other species which have become rare on the South Australian mainland (e.g. Osprey, White-bellied Sea-Eagle, Painted Button-quail, Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo, Southern Emu-wren, Beautiful Firetail and Bassian Thrush).
Non-bird biodiversity: The Kangaroo Island Dunnart is endemic. The island supports important populations of Tammar Wallaby, Australian Sea-lion and New Zealand Fur-seal. 45 of the 1179 plant species recorded from the island are endemic.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Cape Barren Goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae||resident||1980-2007||300-600 individuals||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa||non-breeding||1980-2007||2,800 individuals||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Australian Shelduck Tadorna tadornoides||resident||1980-2007||3,000-6,000 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Chestnut Teal Anas castanea||resident||1980-2007||3,000-6,000 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Blue-billed Duck Oxyura australis||resident||1980-2007||100-1,200 individuals||good||A1, A4i||Near Threatened|
|Musk Duck Biziura lobata||breeding||1980-2000||300-2,000 individuals||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Black-faced Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscescens||resident||1980-2007||3,000-6,000 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Bush Thick-knee Burhinus grallarius||resident||1980-2008||1,000-2,000 individuals||medium||A1||Least Concern|
|Pied Oystercatcher Haematopus longirostris||resident||1980-2007||300-600 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Banded Stilt Cladorhynchus leucocephalus||non-breeding||1980-2007||1,000-5,000 individuals||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Hooded Plover Thinornis cucullatus||resident||1980-2007||150-200 individuals||good||A1, A4i||Vulnerable|
|Pacific Gull Larus pacificus||resident||1980-2007||100-200 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Fairy Tern Sternula nereis||resident||1980-2008||100-200 individuals||medium||A1, A4i||Vulnerable|
|Rock Parrot Neophema petrophila||non-breeding||1980-2008||uncommon||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Purple-gaped Honeyeater Lichenostomus cratitius||resident||1980-2008||common||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Western Whipbird Psophodes nigrogularis||resident||1980-2007||500-1,000 individuals||medium||A1, A2, A3||Least Concern|
|2008||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Invasive and other problematic species and genes||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Natural system modifications||fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Residential and commercial development||housing and urban areas||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|American River||Aquatic Reserve||1,552||protected area contained by site||1,552|
|Baudin||Conservation Park||171||protected area contained by site||171|
|Beatrice Islet||Conservation Park||103||protected area overlaps with site||10|
|Beyeria||Conservation Park||188||protected area contained by site||188|
|Busby Islet||Conservation Park||17||protected area overlaps with site||8|
|Cape Gantheaume||Conservation Park||4,222||protected area contained by site||4,222|
|Cape Gantheaume||Wilderness Protected Area||20,087||protected area contained by site||20,084|
|Cape Torrens||Wilderness Protected Area||922||protected area contained by site||922|
|Dudley||Conservation Park||1,096||protected area contained by site||1,097|
|Flinders Chase||National Park||32,802||protected area contained by site||32,828|
|Kelly Hill||Conservation Park||2,176||protected area contained by site||2,176|
|Lashmar||Conservation Park||191||protected area contained by site||191|
|Lathami||Conservation Park||1,175||protected area contained by site||1,176|
|Lesueur||Conservation Park||1,348||protected area contained by site||1,348|
|Mount Taylor||Conservation Park||18||protected area contained by site||18|
|Nepean Bay||Conservation Park||33||protected area contained by site||33|
|Parndana||Conservation Park||425||protected area contained by site||426|
|Pelican Lagoon||Conservation Park||407||protected area contained by site||379|
|Ravine des Casoars||Wilderness Protected Area||41,304||protected area contained by site||41,330|
|Seal Bay||Conservation Park||4,978||protected area contained by site||4,978|
|Seddon||Conservation Park||22||protected area contained by site||22|
|Simpson||Conservation Reserve||722||protected area contained by site||722|
|Vivonne Bay||Conservation Park||1,589||protected area contained by site||1,589|
|Western River||Wilderness Protected Area||2,468||protected area contained by site||2,468|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||Improved grassland & pasture||major|
|Forest||Other forests & woodlands||minor|
|Shrubland||Mallee shrublands & woodlands||major|
|Wetlands (inland)||Freshwater lakes & pools; Saline lakes||minor|
Land ownership 25% is protected in national and conservation parks and Wilderness Protection Areas; the remaining land is privately owned.
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||major|
Protection status Overlaps with numerous other formal protected areas - see separate section. The IBA also overlaps with the following Heritage Agreements:- 20, 24-25, 43, 45, 82, 91, 100, 117, 132, 145-146, 151, 163, 179, 205, 207, 212, 217, 221, 228, 235, 241, 251-252, 278-288, 290, 294, 296, 328, 331, 343, 362, 375, 379, 388, 392, 424-425, 431, 455, 460, 465-469, 473, 481, 496, 503, 543, 552, 565, 574-575, 596, 600, 614, 617, 629, 641, 643, 650, 652, 654, 657, 661, 670, 719, 728, 771, 778, 792, 823, 854, 859, 861, 864, 873, 879, 891, 895, 906-907, 935, 941, 947, 961, 967, 974, 978, 993, 1033, 1037, 1048, 1072, 1131-1132, 1149, 1169, 1240-1241, 1245, 1277, 1302, 1327, 1346, 1355, 1358, 1360, 1374, 1382-1383, 1387, 1392, 1396, 1399.
Access/Land-Owner requests National parks are open to the public but permission must be obtained to access private holdings.
Acknowledgements The nomination was prepared by Chris Baxter.
References Ball, D. and Carruthers, S. (1998) Kangaroo Island Vegetation Mapping. Department for Transport, Urban Planning and the Arts: Adelaide.
Baxter, C. (1995) An annotated list of the birds of Kangaroo Island. Department of Environment and Natural Resources: Adelaide.
Copley, P.B. (1996). The status of seabirds in South Australia. Pp. 139-180. In: Ross, G.J.B., Weaver, K. and Greig, J.C. (eds) The Status of Australia's Seabirds. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia: Canberra.
Dennis, T.E. and Masters, P. (2006) Long-term trends in the Hooded Plover Thinornis rubricollis population on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist 34: 258-266.
Gates, J.A. (2002) An ecological study of Bush Stone-curlews Burhinus grallarius on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Unpublished MSc thesis. University of Adelaide.
Willoughby N (2001) Biodiversity plan for Kangaroo Island. National Parks and Wildlife South Australia: Adelaide.
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