|Central coordinates||152o 57.46' East 25o 31.50' South|
|IBA criteria||A2, A4i|
|Altitude||0 - 10m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2009|
Summary This site supports about 120,000 non-breeding shorebirds, including more than 1% of the world population of eight species (Bar-tailed Godwit, Eastern Curlew, Great Knot, Grey-tailed Tattler, Lesser Sand Plover, Pied Oystercatcher, Red-necked Stint and Red-capped Plover), and small numbers of the restricted-range Mangrove Honeyeater.
Site description Great Sandy Strait is one of the three most significant roosting and feeding areas for migratory shorebirds in eastern Australia, supporting about 120,000 shorebirds. The IBA contains all of the shorebird roosting and feeding grounds along the 70 km strait, and is between 5 and 15 km wide, with its centre 20 km east southeast of Maryborough in south Queensland. Great Sandy Strait is a sand passage estuary between the mainland and the World Heritage-listed Fraser Island, is the least modified of three such passages in Queensland, is a Marine Park and has been listed as a Ramsar Wetland of International Significance since 1999. The IBA extends above the high tide mark and out of these protected areas where shorebirds roost on higher land. Large numbers of shorebirds feed on expansive tidal flats alongside the mainland or Fraser Island, or on banks in the middle of the strait. About a third of the waterway is intertidal mudflat or sandflat, and the remainder includes mangroves, seagrass, saltmarsh, sandy spits and forested islands. At high tide, waders rest at sites which are usually open areas above high tide (claypans, saltmarshes, sandbars, spits and mangroves) where they can easily see predators. The adjacent Fraser Island is an IBA for its Black-breasted Button-quails.
Key Biodiversity Greater Sand Plovers and Little Tern come close to threshold numbers. The area contained an estimate of 120,000 birds at the January 2005 count but previous adhoc counts had indicated 40,000 birds. Based on data collected during Queensland Wader Study Group surveys, the local Bush Stone-curlew and Beach Stone-curlew populations have been estimated at 10 individuals and 20 individuals respectively. However, these surveys have targeted wader roost sites and excluded bushland habitat, and thus may underestimate the true size of the Bush Stone-curlew population. The Atlas of Australian Birds has one record of Australasian Bittern between 1998 and 2008 (Atlas of Australian Birds database).
Non-bird biodiversity: Patterned fens have been recorded along Great Sandy Strait and Cooloola. This type of wetland is unique in the world. The mangrove communities represent a transition between temperate and tropical regions. Ten species of mangrove have been identified. Three of these are at or near their southern limit of distribution; others are at their northern limit. Old stands of grey mangrove support populations of the endangered Illidge's ant-blue butterfly. Coral reefs and bommies occur in shallow waters at the northern end of the Strait, at Big Woody Island, Little Woody Island and near Round Island. Six species of seagrass have been recorded in the Strait. The seagrass beds are nursery and feeding grounds for prawns and fish and feeding grounds for dugong and turtles. All six species of marine turtles found in Queensland inhabit the Strait: the green, hawksbill, flatback, Pacific Ridley, loggerhead and leatherback turtles. Great Sandy Strait is an important feeding ground for juvenile turtles. Three species of dolphins are resident in the area: common dolphin, bottle-nosed dolphin and Indo-Pacific hump-back dolphin.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Pied Oystercatcher Haematopus longirostris||resident||1985-2007||992 individuals||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Red-capped Plover Charadrius ruficapillus||resident||1985-2007||1,649 individuals||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Lesser Sandplover Charadrius mongolus||non-breeding||1985-2007||8,461 individuals||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Grey-tailed Tattler Tringa brevipes||non-breeding||1985-2007||11,275 individuals||good||A4i||Near Threatened|
|Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica||non-breeding||1985-2007||43,987 individuals||good||A4i||Near Threatened|
|Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis||non-breeding||1985-2007||12,803 individuals||good||A4i||Endangered|
|Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris||non-breeding||1985-2007||5,612 individuals||good||A4i||Endangered|
|Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis||non-breeding||1985-2007||8,100 individuals||good||A4i||Near Threatened|
|Mangrove Honeyeater Lichenostomus fasciogularis||resident||1985-2008||common||-||A2||Least Concern|
|2008||medium||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Biological resource use||fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: large scale||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Pollution||industrial & military effluents - type unknown/unrecorded||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Fraser Island||Fish Habitat Area B||9,734||protected area overlaps with site||307|
|Fraser Island||World Heritage Site||166,283||protected area overlaps with site||9,873|
|Great Sandy||Conservation Park||658||protected area overlaps with site||414|
|Great Sandy||National Park||220,954||protected area overlaps with site||4,629|
|Hervey Bay - Tin Can Bay||Dugong Protection Area (A)||174,225||protected area overlaps with site||58,576|
|Kauri creek||Fish Habitat Area A||7,073||protected area overlaps with site||6,105|
|Maaroom||Fish Habitat Area A||22,971||protected area overlaps with site||22,031|
|Poona||National Park||5,010||protected area overlaps with site||88|
|Susan River||Fish Habitat Area A||4,519||protected area overlaps with site||4,228|
|Tin Can Inlet||Fish Habitat Area A||1,449||protected area overlaps with site||1,253|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Coastline||Estuarine waters; Intertidal mud, sand & salt flats; Mangrove wetlands; Salt marshes||100%|
Land ownership Maryborough City, Hervey Bay, Tiaro and Cooloola Shire Councils. They are responsible for managing roosts on most of the freehold and leasehold land on the mainland. Queensland Environmental Protection Agency is the management agency for the islands in the Great Sandy Strait within national parks. The Defence Department owns a large parcel of land in the SW of the Great Sandy Strait.
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||major|
Protection status The IBA overlaps with nine protected areas.
Acknowledgements The nomination was prepared by Dez Wells with the assistance of the Queensland Wader Study Group.
References Crome, F. (1994) Planning tool for conservation of wader roosts in the Great Sandy Strait. Report to WWF.
Driscoll, P.V. (1990) Survey of shorebird feeding areas and high tide roosts in the Great Sandy Strait, summer 1990. Report for the Qld Department of Environment and Heritage.
Driscoll, P.V. (1993) Survey of waders in the Great Sandy Strait, south-eastern Queensland, Australia. The Stilt. 22. Bulletin of the Australian Waders Studies Group of the RAOU.
Driscoll, P.V.(1996) The distribution of waders along the Queensland coastline. Report to the QLD Department of Environment and Heritage.
Driscoll, P V.(1998) Summary Report on Wader Surveys 1989 to 1997 in the Great Sandy Strait. Prepared by Peter Driscoll on behalf of the Queensland Wader Study Group for the QLD Department of the Environment.
Driscoll, P.V. and Cross, L.(2003) Report on wader and waterbird surveys 2001 to 2002 in the Booral area. Prepared on behalf of the Queensland Wader Study Group for the QLD Parks and Wildlife Service.
Harding, S., Milton, D. and Cross, L.(2005) Great Sandy Strait Shorebird Roost Mapping Project. Report for Shorebird Conservation Project funded by National Heritage Trust and WWF.
Hegerl, E.J.(1993) Site Evaluations and Management Considerations for Intertidal Wetlands - Baffle Creek (24º 31.5’ S) to Noosa (26º 20.7’ S). Draft Report, February 11, 1993. Australian Littoral Society unpublished report for Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Queensland Department of Primary Industries(1993) The condition of river catchments in Queensland: a broad overview of catchment management issues. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2015) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Great Sandy Strait. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2015
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