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Location Uzbekistan, Samarkand
Central coordinates 67o 14.24' East  39o 35.85' North
IBA criteria A1, A3, A4i
Area 2,712 ha
Altitude 620 - 900m
Year of IBA assessment 2008

Uzbekistan Society for the Protection of Birds (Affiliate)

Site description The Zarafshan State Nature Reserve is situated in the south-eastern part of Samarkand region. Its extends from the Chapan-Ata mountain upstream along the right bank of the Zarafshan river to the Pervomayskaya dam. The nature reserve consists of two separate parts, the distance between them being 300 m. The width of each part is 100-140m and the average length is 47 km. The site is located 4 km from the Djambay railway station, 3 km from the most major road in Uzbekistan running from Tashkent to Termez, and 15 km from Samarkand. The nature reserve is located in the eastern part of the Zarafshanskaya depression (the middle part of the Zarafshan river basin) and belongs to the Zarafshan climate area of the subtropical belt. The climate is typical of the continental subtropics with large variations in daily and annual air temperatures and a pronounced periodicity in atmospheric precipitation. The site consists of a plain sloping to the riverbed. The plain is crossed by a mixture of old and active riverbeds, levees and dams. The most widespread soils are alluvial- flood lands and inundated-alluvial. The hydrological network of the nature reserve is formed by the Zarafshan river and its channels. There is a irrigation canal on the right bank in the protected zone. Water levels in the Zarafshan are highest in summer (June-July) and lowest in winter (January-February). During floods excess water from the right bank channel drains though canals into the river. At this time approximately 30% of the nature reserve is flooded. When water levels are low, about 70% of the site has very little water. Soils on all of the area are well drained, and only in a few small depressions is there underground water and swamps. Tugai forest vegetation is well developed. The richest and most vegetated area is located in the north-western part of the nature reserve where underground waters are not more than 2 m below the surface. In spite of its small size, the landscape of the nature reserve is very varied. 868 ha of the lower area are covered with tugai forest. There are widespread tree-shrub biotopes, meadows and marshy-meadows, and wetland habitats are represented by brooks, old canals and fire-prevention ponds, overgrown by hygrophilous vegetation, scattered throughout the forest zone. The Zarafhan river, cliffs on the left bank, pebble beaches and arid areas are also of interest.

Key Biodiversity The avifauna includes 218 species (Marmazinskaya, Fundukchiev, 2004). 14 of them are residents, 51 breeding, 57 wintering and 96 migrants. Residents: Phasianus colchicus zerafschanicus, Columba livia, Streptopelia decaocto, Alcedo atthis, Dendrocopos leucopterus, Galerida cristata, Acridotheres tristis, Pica pica and Parus bokharensis. Nesting: Tachybaptus ruficollis, Nycticorax nycticorax, Accipiter badius, Falco tinnunculus, Gallinula chloropus, Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Athene noctua, Asio otus, Otus scops, Otus brucei, Caprimulgus europaeus, Merops apiaster, Coracias garullus, Upupa epops, Hirundo rustica, Oriolus oriolus, Turdus merula, Luscinia megarhynchos and Remiz pendulinus. Migrants: Phalacrocorax carbo, Ph. pygmaeus, Ciconia nigra, Anser anser, Tadorna ferruginea, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya fuligula, Mergellus albellus, Pandion haliaetus, Pernis apivorus, Milvus migrans, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Сircaetus gallicus, Aquila heliaca, Haliaeetus albicilla, Falco peregrinus, Coturnix coturnix, Grus grus, Grus virgo, Burhinus oedicnemus, Himantopus himantopus, Sterna caspia, Sterna albifrons, Motacilla citreola, Motacilla cinerea, Motacilla alba, Motacilla personata, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Saxicola torquata, Muscicapa striata, Carpodacus erythrinus and others. Wintering: Tachybaptus ruficollis, Egretta alba, Ardea cinerea, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas crecca, Circus cyaneus, Circus aeruginosus, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Buteo lagopus, Buteo buteo, Fulica atra, Gallinago gallinago, Tringa ochropus, Scolopax rusticola, Asio otus, Corvus cornix, Troglodytes troglodytes, Erithacus rubecula, Phoenicurus erythronotus, Parus rufonuchalis, Parus flavipectus, Turdus atrogularis, Turdus merula, Fringilla coelebs, Fringilla montifringilla, Emberiza citronella and others. Vagrant: Neophron percnopterus, Aegypius monachus, Gyps fulvus, Bubo bubo, Apus melba, Corvus corax. Scientific reports indicate the presence of Crex crex in the 1980s. 26 species are included in the Red Data Book of Uzbekistan. There are separate records of Ardeola ralloides, Phoenicopterus roseus, Hieraaetus pennatus, Aquila nipalensis and Chlamydotis undulata. The nature reserve and adjoining farmlands are the main habitat of Phasianus colchicus zerafschanicus – a restricted range endemic included in the National Red Data Book. The Zarafshan river is a flyway for many birds of prey, Anseriformes, Gruidae, Columbiiformes, Ciconia nigra and others. The forest part of the nature reserve is a wintering area for Egretta alba and Ardea cinerea, some species of Anseriformes, buzzards and small raptors, Scolopax rusticola, Asio otus, some species of Turdus, and many Passeriformes. Columba palumbus, Asio otus and Otus scops breed in the floodplain forest. Two colonies of Nycticorax nycticorax, located in the tugai forests along the Zerafshan, are protected by the nature reserve. Therefore the Zarafshan nature reserve plays a large role in the conservation of regional biodiversity and the last of the Zarafshan river valley tugai forest complex. Acridotheres tristis – an invasive species – is common in the nature reserve and is thought to be threatening the survival of native species.

Non-bird biodiversity: Zarafshan nature reserve is the only place in the Zarafshan river valley where tugai forest has been preserved. In spite of its small size the nature reserve has a high diversity of biotopes, vegetation and animals. The fauna includes 2 species of Amphibian, 18 species of Fish, 10 species of Reptile and 24 species of Mammal. Agrionemys horsfieldi (RL) can be found here. Lutra lutra seistanica (RDBUz) was recorded in thickets of dense tugai vegetation along the irrgation canal. Two groups of 10 Cervus elaphus (RDBUz, RL) were reintroduced into the tugai forest in August 2005 and October 2007, as part of the Bokhara Deer conservation progamme. The vegetation includes a special complex, peculiar to this region, formed in the tugai. The flora includes about 300 species and is very varied because of the very heterogeneous soils. There is tree tugai, shrub tugai, grassy tugai, floodlands, land above the flood plain and desert habitats. Salix songarica, S. wilhelmsiana, Hippophae rhamnoides, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Tamarix sp prevail among trees. Populus prunosa, Populus diversifolia and Crataegus turkestanica are more rare. Because of the site's proximity to mountain ranges about 100 ha of Hippophae rhamnoides thickets is preserved here - a habitat which is not found in such amount in other tugai forests. When forestry was carried out on the area now covered by the nature reserve, several species were introduced and these are now well established. These species are Platanus orientalis, Ailanthus sp., Gleditschia sp., Morus nigra, Morus alba, Populus alba, Juglans regia, Cydonia oblonga, Malus domestica, Armeniaca vulgaris, Cerasus mahaleb, Robinia pseudacacia, Vitis vinifera and Fraxinus sp. Crocus korolkovii (RDBUz) and Colchicum kesselringii (RDBUz) are included in the National Red Data Book.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax breeding  1976-2006  50-1,000 individuals  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga passage  2004  15 individuals  medium  A1  Vulnerable 
Pallid Scops-owl Otus brucei breeding  2006-2007  20 individuals  medium  A3  Least Concern 
Egyptian Nightjar Caprimulgus aegyptius breeding  2007  1 individuals  medium  A3  Least Concern 
European Roller Coracias garrulus breeding  2002-2007  60 individuals  medium  A1  Near Threatened 
White-winged Woodpecker Dendrocopos leucopterus resident  2002-2007  10 breeding pairs  medium  A3  Least Concern 
Great Tit Parus major resident  2002-2009  20-27 breeding pairs  medium  A3  Least Concern 
Red-headed Bunting Emberiza bruniceps breeding  2007  1 individuals  medium  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2008 high not assessed low
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather drought likely in short term (within 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration low
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species habitat effects - gathering plants happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution air-borne pollutants happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution garbage and solid waste happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors utility & service lines happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  No management planning has taken place  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  low 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Zeravshanskiy State Nature Reserve 4,704 is identical to site 2,352  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Flood-plain  34%
Shrubland Low bushes; Scrub  7%
Grassland Dry grassland on sandy soils; Humid; Mesophile grassland & tall grass steppe  7%
Desert Desert & semi-desert - stony  9%
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land; Forestry plantations; Perennial crops, orchards & groves  14%
Wetlands (inland) Rivers & streams; Standing fresh water; Water-fringe vegetation  25%
Introduced vegetation   4%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research 100%
water management major

Protection status The IBA covers the Zeravshan Nature Reserve.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Zarafshan State Nature Reserve. Downloaded from on 26/11/2014

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