Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity of Kazakhstan (Affiliate)
Site description The site lies in the southern part of the Ubagan-Ishym watershed (the Tyguntyugur Hollow)and comprises a group of five lakes - Alabota, Koibagar Tyuntyugur, Zhanshura and Biyesoigan - at the base of a semi-distinct escarpment forming the transition of the Tyuntyugurt plateau onto the Kostanai plain. The site covers the waterbody complex situated in Karasu district 140 km to the south-east of the regional centre of Kostanai. The district centre of Koibagar is located 3 km inland of the north-western shore of Koibagar lake, at the mouth of the Karasu river. The northern part of the lakes lie 50 km from the major republican Kostanai-Kokshetau motorway and there is an extension of the Sarykol-Karasu-Koibagar highway 4 km from the north-western boundary of the lake system.
The lakes are freshwater and rely on melt-water for their water supply. They are also subject to a reversible hydrological regime subject to a perennial rhythm. All of the lakes have large areas of reed varying depending on water levels and relief from thin fringes and patches to dense reedbeds. The Tyuntyugurt plateau is drained by several rivers running in an east-west direction and discharging into the range of the Hollow. The course of the largest river is 95 km.
Koibagar lake is set in an isolated hollow encircled by an unbroken wall of clayey bluffs varying in height from 3 to 10 m. The lake covers approximately 96 km2, and is approximately 17.8 x 9.1 km, with a shoreline length of 49.2 km. The bottom of the lake is smooth and rarely exceeds depths of 1.3-1.4 m. The shore is covered by an intermittent belt of reeds (Phragmites australis) 400-500 m thick. Tyuntyugur lake covers an area of 54.3 km2. On three sides there are low cliffs with the fourth side being gently sloping. The lake is encircled by the reedbeds 40-100 m deep. Zhanshra lake covers an area of 15.7 km2 but 80-90% of it is covered by a mosaic of Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis. The shallowest lakes of the group - Alabota and Biyesoigan – cover 2,194 ha. The average depths seldom exceed 0.8 m. In some years, insufficient spring water supplies cause them to dry-up. Both lakes are almost totally covered by reed. In the lower lying parts of the Hollow there are wet meadows dominated by Elytrigia repens.
Before the steppe in the region was ploughed in the mid 1950s, the adjacent steppe area consisted of motley turf-grass associations including Stipa zalesskii, St. lessingiana, Festuca valesiaca, Salvia stepposa and Seseli ledebourii. Nowadays all of the land adjoining the lakes is arable.
There are about 18 settlements within a 30 km radius of the lakes, with an overall ppopulation of 13,941 persons. Two settlements, totalling 818 people, are situated on the shores of Lakes Koibagar and Tyuntygur.
Key Biodiversity About 95 species of waterbirds occur at the site, 39 of them breeding. The most numerous are geese, ducks and Coots which in autumn can easily number 500,000 individuals. The species composition and numbers are subject to annual variations related to the perennial pattern of water regime dynamics. Sixteen species of Anseriformes breed. The wide variety of biotopes and favourable feeding conditions make the lake system very attractive for non-breeding waterfowl, especially for moulting. In 1998, the moulting flocks consisted mostly of Anser anser, Anas strepera, Anas clypeata and Aythya ferina. In early June 2000 the total number of waterfowl on the main lakes was 30-50,000, including 4-5,000 Anser anser, while on the shores of Tyuntyugur, there were 12-15,000 waders principally Calidris minuta, Calidris alpinа and Philomachus pugnax.
Ducks and geese are very numerous during spring migration, as also are northern waders, especially Phalaropus lobatus. There appears to be a high turnover rate of birds at this time of year. In early May 1997 Koibagar, Tyuntyugur and Biyesigan lakes held 15,000 geese, including 12,267 Anser albifrons, 665 Anser erythropus, 1,193 Branta ruficollis and several hundred Anser anser.
Autumn passage lasts a little more than 2 months. The main goose migration occcurs in the first half of October. Observations undertaken here in 1996-1999 revealed numbers varying from 48 to 80,000. On 4-8 October 1997 the lakes held 170,000 geese. It is estimated that each autumn the site supports up to 500,000 geese.
15 species listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan have been recorded at the site. Breeding species are Cygnus cygnus, Grus grus and, possibly, Oxyura leucocephala and Aythya nyroca. Passage species include Cygnus columbianus, Grus grus, Anser erythropus, Branta ruficollis, Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila heliaca. In summer the site is frequented by the roving groups of Pelecanus onocrotalus, Pelecanus crispus and Larus ichthyaetus. Phoenicopterus roseus occurs occasionally. On the adjacent steppe and farmland there are isolated observations of Grus virgo, Tetrax tetrax and Vanellus gregarius all of which may possibly breed. Falco vespertinus nests in the forest belts surrounding the fields, and Circus macrourus and Glareola nordmannii near to the lakes. Grus leucogeranus has been recorded from the vicinities of Alabota and Zhanshura lakes.
Non-bird biodiversity: Fish are represented by 8-10 species, with the most variable and stable being found in Koibagar. Mammals include 30 species, of which the majority are rodents. Of these the most numerous are two hydrophilic species: Arvicola terrestris and Ondatra zibetica. In recent years the reedbeds of the lakes have been colonised by Sus scrofa.
In former times the steppe area adjacent to the Hollow consisted of motley turf-grass associations (Stipa lessingiana, St. zalesskii, Herbae stepposa) but now most areas have been converted to arable. Two relict plant species can still be found - Lemna trisulca and Utricularia vulgaris. Nuphar luteum occurs in the lower reaches of the Tuntyugur river; the commonest elements of the shore-zone vegetation are Scirpus lacustris and Typha angustifolia; in some wet places there are willow-beds (Salix cinerea, S. viminalis).
Arable land; Forestry plantations; Highly improved reseeded grasslands; Other urban & industrial areas; Ruderal land
Extent (% of site)
Protection status No official status and the lakes are included in the area assigned to a hunting society.
However, the Koibagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System is included in the List of Natural Environment Objects of special scientific, ecological and cultural importance (the RK government decree №416 of 03.05.2005). By a separate ruling it has been given the Status of State Natural Heritage Object ( №932 от 28.09.2006).
References Bragin E.A. (2001) Lakes dynamics and waterfowl of Ubagan-Ishym Interfluve and of Northern Turgai. Materials of 11International conference “Actual problems of research and protection of birds of Eastern Europe and Central Asia”. Kazan’, P.120-122. (in Russian).
Bragin E.A., and BraginaT.M. (2002) T.M. Wetlands in system of natural complexes of Northern Kazakhstan. General characteristic and nature-protection importance. The most important wetlands of Northern Kazakhstan (in limits of Kostanay and west part of North-Kazakhstan regions). Moscow: Russian University (series WWF, issue 5): 19-38. (in Russian)..
Bragin E.A., Yerokhov S.N. (2002) Koibagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System. The most important wet-lands of Northern Kazakhstan (within the limits of Kostanai and the Western Part of Northern Kazakhstan Regions) Edited by Bragin E.A. and Bragina T.M., M., Russian University, P.75-82. (in Russian).
Bragin E.A. (2004). Distribution and population numbers of swans in Kostanai Region in 1998-2002. Transactions of Institute of Zoology, V. 47. “Migrations of birds in Asia”, Almaty. P. 75-86. (in Russian).
Yerokhov S.N. (1999). Preliminary results of the monitoring of geese autumn migration taking its course through the territory of Kostanai Region (Northern Kazakhstan). The problems of protection and sustainable use of biodiversity of wildlife of Kazakhstan.( Materials of international scientific conference of the 6-8 of April 1999) Almaty: P. 64-65. (in Russian).
Yerokhov S.N., Berezovikov N.N., Kellomyaki E.N., Ripatti N.L. (2000). Anser erythropus and concomitant species of geese on their migration in Kazakhstan. Brant # 6, Bulletin of the working group on geese and swans of Eastern Europe and Central Asia., M.,P.121-157.
Yerokhov S.N., Berezovikov N.N. Monitoring of waterfowl and shore-bird species on the water-bodies of Kostanai Region (Northern Kazakhstan) in October of the years 2001and 2002. Russian Ornithol. Journal. The express-issue #228, P. 744-749. (in Russian)
Yerokhov S.N., Kellomyaki E.N., Karpov F.F., Vilkov V.S. (2006). The results of the monitoring of waterfowl species’ autumn migration and their essential habitats condition’s assessment in Kostanai Region in 2005. Kazakhstan Ornithological Bulletin 2005. Almaty “Tethys”, P. 41-45. (in Russian)
Muravlyov G.G.(1956) Lakes of Karasu district of Kostanai Region.// Issues of Geography of Kazakhstan. Second release. (in Russian)
Muravlyov G.G.(1960) About the layouts and the types of lakes// The lakes of Northern Kazakhstan. Publ. House of AS of KazSSR. Almaty. P.43-99. (in Russian)
J.Markkola, P.Pynnonen, P.Tolvanen, A.Veersaly & S.Yerohov. (1998) The second International Lesser White-fronted Geese Anser erythropus expedition in NW Kazakhstan in May 1997. WWF. Finland Report # 9. Finnish Lesser White-fronted Goose Conservation Project. Annual report, 1997. Helsinki, p. 21- 22.
P.Tolvanen & P.Pynnonen. (1998) Monitoring the autumn migration of Lesser White-fronted Geese Anser erythropus and other gees in NW Kazakhstan in October 1996. WWF. Finland Report # 9. Finnish Lesser White-fronted Goose Conservation Project. Annual report, 1997. Helsinki, p. 19- 20.
P.Tolvanen, K.Litvin & P.Lampila. (1999) Monitoring the autumn staging of Lesser White-fronted Geese in north-western Kazakhstan, October, 1998. WWF. Finland Report #10. NOF Rapportserie Report # 1-1999. Fennoscandian Lesser White-fronted Goose conservation project. Annual report, 1998. Helsinki, p. 42- 46.
P.Tolvanen, T.Eskelin, T.Aarvak, G.Eichhorn, I.Oien, & E.Gurtovaya. (2000) Monitoring the autumn staging of Lesser White-fronted Geese in Kazakhstan, October, 1999. WWF. Finland Report #12. NOF Rapportserie Report # 1- 2000. Fennoscandian Lesser White-fronted Goose conservation project. Annual report, 1999. Helsinki, p. 43- 48.
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