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Location Anguilla (to UK)
Central coordinates 63o 1.00' West  18o 12.80' North
IBA criteria A2, B4i
Area 23 ha
Altitude
Year of IBA assessment 2014





Site description Long Salt Pond is an irregularly shaped pond that lies just west of Long Pond Bay, stretching a significant length to the west. The southern and the northern sides of the pond are elevated while the western and eastern sides are relatively flat. The area surrounding the pond’s edge is predominantly undeveloped; a few homes and villas are well set back from the pond’s edge.

 
Limestone pavement lines the northern and southern edges of the pond. The western shore of the pond consists of a mudflat that is usually evident during periods of low rainfall. When the pond is full, the mudflat is covered and the water stretches as far back as the unpaved road. Buttonwood mangrove line the edge of the water at the low water mark. The eastern shore consists of sand and grass flats and sandy spits, visible during periods of low water levels.
Rock walls within the pond are the remnants of salt harvesting at the pond. Along the north-eastern side of the pond, rows of rock walls extend from the limestone pavement, enclosed by a perpendicular rock wall, creating several rectangular enclosed sections that had also been previously used during an attempt to engage in shrimp farming.
There is a paved road which stretches west to east on the northern side of the pond, an unpaved road on the pond’s western side, and sandy unpaved road on its eastern side a few feet from the beach’s high water mark which leads to limited built tourism developments southeast of the pond.

Buttonwood mangrove lines the pond’s edge on its western end. It grows densely on the pond’s northern, southern and western side and thinly on its eastern end. Low-lying shrub vegetation, pondweed (Sesuvium portulacastrum), pond and dune grasses as well as beach runners including the Cow bean vine (Canavalia rosea) are characteristic of the area.

Hydrological value:

The pond is the main catchment for lands around this section of the southern coast. The main source of water for this pond is rainfall and run off from surrounding areas. There are no known springs. Salt water enters the pond as a result of its close proximity to Long Pond Bay. Indeed, the narrow sand bar that separates the pond from the sea is often breached during rough seas. Natural sand accretion prevents an on-going connection.

Currently, monitoring of salinity, phosphates, nitrates, phosphates, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and other gasses does not occur.

Key Biodiversity Overview of bird interests:


Average bird numbers tend to be relatively high on with numbers being above 200 individual birds between 2007 and 2011. Numbers gradually increase during the first half and then decline in the second half of the study period.

The most productive periods for this pond are in the spring and fall months coinciding with spring and fall migration of birds and in particular, the nesting of Least terns. During this five-year period, the most abundant species include Semi-palmated sandpiper, Least tern, Lesser yellowleg, and Black-necked stilt.
IUCN Redlist species present at Long Salt Pond incude Semi-palmated sandpipers which occur in high numbers. In addition, although listed as Least Concern on the IUCN’s Redlist, Least terns are considered endangered in the territories where they are observed, including Anguilla. They are protected within Appendix I of the Biodiversity and Heritage Conservation Act (2009).

Overview of botanical interest:

Grasses and low shrub plants are dominant species along the eastern end of the pond. There are two varieties of cow bean: white and pink (Canavalia rosea). Limestone turf sedge grass (Fimbristylis cymosa) and the pondweed runner (Sesuvium portulacastrum) are also common.

Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) is also a dominant plant around the shorelines of the pond especially where the substrate is limestone. They are, however, also present and setback from the pond on the surrounding area’s sand and mud shores.

Overview of other biodiversity interests:

Additional studies required.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Common Tern Sterna hirundo winter  2007  9 individuals  medium  B4i  Least Concern 
Least Tern Sternula antillarum breeding  2011  max 492 individuals  good  B4i  Least Concern 
Green-throated Carib Eulampis holosericeus resident  2007  unknown  A2  Least Concern 
Caribbean Elaenia Elaenia martinica resident  2007  unknown  A2  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2013 high favourable negligible
Population
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - shifting agriculture past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification marine and freshwater aquaculture - subsistence/artisinal aquaculture past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration likely in long term (beyond 4 years) whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather storms and floods happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather temperature extremes likely in long term (beyond 4 years) whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Geological events earthquakes/tsunamis happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Geological events volcanic eruptions likely in long term (beyond 4 years) whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target) past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target) past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - type unknown/unrecorded happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Pollution air-borne pollutants - smog happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Pollution excess energy - light pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution excess energy - noise pollution happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Pollution garbage & solid waste happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors utility & service lines happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low

Sternula antillarum Least Tern 45 45 individuals 100 favourable

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  negligible 

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland) Freshwater lakes & pools  major
Shrubland Arid lowland scrub  minor
Forest Mangrove  minor
Coastline Sand dunes & beaches  minor

Land ownership Private

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
urban/industrial/transport minor
Notes: Roads (west and east)
nature conservation and research minor
Notes: Bird Monitoring
tourism/recreation minor

Protection status None

Access/Land-Owner requests None

Acknowledgements Author: Clarissa Lloyd, Anguilla National Trust.

Edited by: Farah Mukhida, Anguilla National Trust.

Further web sources of information 

Site profile from Important Bird Areas in the Caribbean: key sites for conservation (BirdLife International 2008)

References Anguilla National Trust. ANT wetland bird count data (2007 – 2011). Unpublished.

Daniels, Edsel B. 2011. Anguilla Wetlands Mapping Project Report: A component of the UK DFID/OTEP funded “Building a Foundation for Anguilla’s Wetland Future” Project. Unpublished Report.

Holliday, S.H.; Hodge, K.V.D.; Hughes, D.E. 2007. A guide to the birds of Anguilla. Bedfordshire, England; Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

Lloyd C. and Mukhida, F. 2012. The state of Anguilla’s wetland birds 2007-2011. The Valley, Anguilla: Anguilla National Trust.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.;Garrido, O.; Keith, A. ; Raffaele, J. (2003) Birds of the West Indies. New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press.

Subin, E, Dudley, J, Crock, J, Bryan, JAS, Thomas, R, Christian, I, Vanterpool, V & Warner, B (1998) A Field Guide to Anguilla’s Wetlands. Anguilla National Trust, The Valley, Anguilla

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Long Salt Pond. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/12/2014

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