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Location Anguilla (to UK)
Central coordinates 63o 8.21' West  18o 10.03' North
IBA criteria A2, B4i
Area 43 ha
Altitude
Year of IBA assessment 2013





Site description 

Cove Pond is one of the largest ponds on the mainland of Anguilla and forms part of a larger complex coastal lagoon system. It initially was attached to Merrywing Pond to the east and Gull Pond to the west. Its system stretches alongside Cove Bay and Maunday’s Bay and consists of a sandy bottom is irregularly shaped and very dynamic.

The pond is now split into two main basins, divided midway by a paved causeway built in 1993 that forms the main entrance to the Cap Juluca Hotel. Other developments near the pond include Modena Villa at its most eastern end and Sheriva Villa on the northern side of the causeway, leading to Cap Juluca Hotel. There are a few residential homes which are scattered along which are significantly setback from the pondline. 

The eastern basin is a wide expanse of water that had at one time, been connected Merrywing Pond by an unpaved road that has caused hydrological separation of the two ponds. The western basin which is separated from Gull Pond by an unpaved causeway is more narrow on its western end that leads to the back-of-house facilities of Cap Juluca Resort. The pond’s western shore is marl and is somewhat rocky. 

Cove Pond is lined by scrub vegetation along its northern side of its eastern basin and mangrove vegetation on its southern side. Sea grape buffers the pond outside of the Cap Juluca lobby, midway along the southern side of the pond. Cap Juluca Resort is landscaped with a number of ornamental plants that are both native and non-native. While the pond is sheltered on either side of its western basin by mangrove vegetation, its western shore is exposed. 
 
Hurricanes have caused significant changes around the pond, including the deposition of significant amounts of sand into the pond basin. This has led to a general decrease in catchment area although this has not translated specifically into increased flooding in the area.

Hydrological value:

Cove Pond receives water through rainfall and surface runoff. The land to the north slopes downward towards the pond. There is a sand dune to the south of the pond which protects it from strong winds from the Bay. While a channel once connected the pond to the sea, that channel is now closed. The pond remains brackish. 

The causeway which runs between the eastern and western sides has a netted culvert that allows water to pass through while capturing lost golf balls which wash down from the driving golf range which is located on the northeast side of the road, adjacent to the causeway to the main hotel. 

Currently, monitoring of salinity, phosphates, nitrates, phosphates, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and other gasses does not occur.

Key Biodiversity 

Overview of bird interests:

The average annual number of wetland birds in 2007 was approximately 75 birds. In 2008, this average annual number decrease to 50 after which, it increased in 2009 and 2010. The average number observed in 2011 was the lowest throughout the period 2007 to 2011.

Overview of botanical interests:

Additional studies required.

Overview of other biodiversity interests:

Additional studies required.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Common Tern Sterna hirundo non-breeding  2012  1-21 individuals  good  B4i  Least Concern 
Least Tern Sternula antillarum breeding  2007  34 breeding pairs  medium  B4i  Least Concern 
Green-throated Carib Eulampis holosericeus resident  2007  1 individuals  medium  A2  Least Concern 
Lesser Antillean Bullfinch Loxigilla noctis resident  2013  1 individuals  medium  A2  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2013 high favourable negligible
Population
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - shifting agriculture past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration likely in long term (beyond 4 years) whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather storms and floods happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather temperature extremes likely in long term (beyond 4 years) whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Geological events earthquakes/tsunamis happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Geological events volcanic eruptions likely in short term (within 4 years) whole area/population (>90%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - small dams happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target) past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution air-borne pollutants - smog happening now whole area/population (>90%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution domestic & urban waste water - run-off happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution domestic & urban waste water - sewage happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution excess energy - light pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution excess energy - noise pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution garbage & solid waste happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors utility & service lines happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low

Sternula antillarum Least Tern 45 45 individuals 100 favourable

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  negligible 

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Shrubland Arid lowland scrub  minor
Wetlands (inland) Freshwater lakes & pools  major
Forest Mangrove  minor
Coastline Sand dunes & beaches  minor
Artificial - terrestrial Urban parks & gardens  minor

Land ownership 

Crown/Leased

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
tourism/recreation major
urban/industrial/transport major
nature conservation and research minor
Notes: Bird Monitoring
water management minor
Notes: Culvert

Protection status 

None

Access/Land-Owner requests 

None

Acknowledgements 

Author: Clarissa Lloyd, Anguilla National Trust.

Edited by: Farah Mukhida, Anguilla National Trust.

Further web sources of information 

Site profile from Important Bird Areas in the Caribbean: key sites for conservation (BirdLife International 2008)

References 

Anguilla National Trust. ANT wetland bird count data (2007 – 2011). Unpublished.

Daniels, Edsel B. 2011. Anguilla Wetlands Mapping Project Report: A component of the UK DFID/OTEP funded “Building a Foundation for Anguilla’s Wetland Future” Project. Unpublished Report.

Holliday, S.H.; Hodge, K.V.D.; Hughes, D.E. 2007. A guide to the birds of Anguilla. Bedfordshire, England; Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

Lloyd C. and Mukhida, F. 2012. The state of Anguilla’s wetland birds 2007-2011. The Valley, Anguilla: Anguilla National Trust.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.;Garrido, O.; Keith, A. ; Raffaele, J. (2003) Birds of the West Indies. New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press.

Subin, E, Dudley, J, Crock, J, Bryan, JAS, Thomas, R, Christian, I, Vanterpool, V & Warner, B (1998) A Field Guide to Anguilla’s Wetlands. Anguilla National Trust, The Valley, Anguilla

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Cove Pond. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014

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