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Location Turkmenistan, Balkan
Central coordinates 53o 21.70' East  39o 47.47' North
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii
Area 267,124 ha
Altitude 2 - 70m
Year of IBA assessment 2005

BirdLife Central Asia Programme (BirdLife Direct Action Programme)

Site description The IBA encompasses several bays of the Caspian Sea: Turkmenbashy, Balkan, North-Cheleken and Mikhailovsky which are separated from the open sea by Krasnovodskiy and North-Cheleken spits. The north of the territory is limited by ledges of the Krasnovodskiy plateau, in the south by the Cheleken peninsula, and in the northeast by the Dardzha peninsula. The relief of the IBA can be divided into 3 basic components: a) shallow brackish bays having open access to each other and separated from the sea by sandy spits; b) sandy - shelly spits, islands and dunes, overgrown with halophytes; c) stony islands in Balkan Bay, including the largest - Dagada - with an area of 120 hectares. The coastal shallow waters of the Southeast Caspian Sea are the largest flyway, and also the largest wintering area, of waterfowl and waterbirds nesting in Western Siberia, Kazakhstan and other regions of Northern Asia. Alongside favourable natural processes increasing the area of wetlands over the last 10 years, anthropogenic factors have also strongly increased: pollution by mineral oil, disturbance and illegal hunting of a significant proportion of the wintering and migrating waterfowl and waterbirds.

Key Biodiversity The avifauna includes almost 300 species, of which 130 are waterfowl and waterbirds. The majority occur during spring-autumn migration and in winter: Podicipedidae - Podiceps griseigena and Podiceps ruficollis; Phalacrocoracidae - Phalocrocorax саrbo on migration; Ardeae - Botaurus stellaris, Ixobrychus minutus, Ardea cinerea, Ardea purpurea, Egretta alba, Egretta garzetta, Nycticorax nycticorax in small numbers in November. Anser anser stops during migration for feeding on the islands of the Balkan Bay; Anatidae - Tadorna ferruginea, Tadorna tadorna - on migration and wintering, and in summertime scattered pairs nest on Krasnovodskiy spit; Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Aythya marina, Aythya nyroca and Mergus merganser; Rallidae - Gallinula chloropus, Rallus aquaticus and Porzana porzana in small numbers stop on migration in reed thickets on Krasnovodskiy spit and Bekovicha Bay; Laridae - Larus cachinnans, Larus ridibundus and Larus genei are usual in the bayss; Charadriiformes - Vanellus vanellus, Charadrius alexandrinus, Charadrius dubius, Tringa totanus, Actitis hypoleucos, Philomachus pugnax, Calidris alpina, Gallinago gallinago. Most numerous are Philomachus pugnax and Calidris alpina during autumn-spring migration. The IBA is a typical wetland, providing optimum conditions for waterfowl and water birds. The main migratory birds consist of 44 species (47,8% of all species). Mainly, Netta - (32%) and Anas - (9.5%), Laridae -(15%), Rallidae - (Fulica atra) (17%), Limosa - (10.6%).

Non-bird biodiversity: Fish are represented by 10 valuable species: herring (Caspialosa sp.), mullet (Mugil sp.), Rutilus sp., Cyprinus sp., Artediellus sp., Atherina sp., Clupeonella sp., Aspius sp., Salma sp.. Bays provide spawning grounds for commercial fish. Amphibians: lake frog (Rana ridibunda) and green toad (Bufo viridis). Reptiles: directly related to the coast line are 4 species - Echis caruinatus, Agama sanquinolenta and Stellio caucasius (all are not numerous) - at the foot of Garadag mountain and the Ufra peninsula - Natrix tessellata is numerous everywhere where there are reed thickets, in particular on Krasnovodskiy spit. Mammals - about 50 species of which 19 are rodents, 13 - predators, 7 - insectivores and Chiroptera, 2 - ungulates, 1 - Pinnipedia. The most interesting species is the Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica) which is endemic to the Caspian. In 1980 large congregations of seals occurred on Bolshoy Osushnoy island. Vascular plants total more than 360 species. In the sea bays - 41 species of seaweed–macrophytes and 5 species of flowering plants occur. The main vegetation communities in the reserve are various types of desert, floodplains and dry subtropics, plus macrophytes in shallow bays and on the coast. The vegetation of the bays is represented by groups of lower plants (seaweeds) and higher flowering plants (sea grasses). Green (28 species), red (11 species) and brown (1 species) seaweeds form thickets on the shores down to a depth of 6m. In addition to these macroscopicals, there are many hundreds of species of microscopic seaweed - in the plankton and benthos. Flowering plants are represented by a few species: Zostera sp, Ruppia sp, Potamogeton sp, Najas marina. They grow mainly on sandy soils and in water up to a depth of 4.5m.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus winter  2001-2005  465 individuals  good  A1, A4i  Vulnerable 
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos winter  2001  1,816-20,769 individuals  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Common Teal Anas crecca winter  2001  4,825-27,376 individuals  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina winter  2001-2005  2,166-50,060 individuals  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Common Pochard Aythya ferina winter  2001-2005  13,499-32,444 individuals  good  A4i  Vulnerable 
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca winter  2001-2005  6-455 individuals  good  A1  Near Threatened 
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula winter  2001-2005  2,148-17,818 individuals  good  A4i  Least Concern 
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala winter  2006-2007  5-7,140 individuals  good  A1, A4i  Endangered 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus winter  2001-2005  19,848-27,712 individuals  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Common Coot Fulica atra winter  2001-2005  24,596-47,607 individuals  good  A4i  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  2001  68,909-231,846 individuals  good  A4iii   

IBA Monitoring

2007 very high not assessed low
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration happening now whole area/population (>90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  No management planning has taken place  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  low 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Hazar State Nature Reserve 1,310,185 protected area contained by site 192,329  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Desert   1%
Wetlands (inland)   8%
Sea   90%
Artificial - terrestrial   1%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research 99%
tourism/recreation 1%

Protection status Khazar state ornithological reserve. Khazar reserve (until 1994 called Krasnovodskiy) was established in 1932 on the southeastern coast of the Caspian Sea at the juncture of the typically dry Transcaspian desert and the saltwater area of the Caspian and Astrabad subtropical province of Iran. The total area is 262,037 ha, including 192,047 ha of the Caspian Sea itself. The condition of the wetlands, fauna and number of waterfowl and water birds is substantially influenced by changes in the level of the Caspian Sea. Expansion of the Caspian Sea began in 1979 and by 1995 the level had risen almost 2.5m, as a result the area of all coastal shallow waters has extended. At the same time, rising sea levels led to the flooding of the Osushnye islands, where sites suitable for colonial nesting gulls have disappeared. In total almost 500 hectares of wetlands, suitable for wintering, migrant and nesting birds, have been lost.

References Vasilev V.I. (1974). The chronicle of Krasnovodskiy reserve. The book 3, Krasnovodsk (not published). (in Russian). Vasilev V.I. (1984). The chronicle of Krasnovodskiy reserve. The book 13. Krasnovodsk (not published). (in Russian). Vasilev V.I., (1986). The report on activity of Krasnovodskiy reserve for 1981-1985 Krasnovodsk (not published). (in Russian). Vasilev V.I. (1990). An estimation of a modern condition of wetlands of the Southeast Caspian sea - places of mass winterings and seasonal migrations of waterfowl and water birds as a basis of rational use of their resources. The report of Krasnovodskiy reserve (not published). (in Russian). Vasilev V.I., Sherbina А.А. (1977). Features of wintering of a waterfowl at east coast of Caspian sea during seasons 1971-72 both 1972-73 and actions of Krasnovodskiy reserve on their extra nutrition. – Resources of wild fowls of coasts of Caspian sea and adjoining areas. Astrakhan. (in Russian). Vasilev V.I., Gauzer M.E. (1991). A role of east coast of Caspian sea in protection of mass winterings and reproduction waterfowl and water birds. - Materials from 1 International conference on problems of Caspian sea. Baku. (in Russian). Vasilev V.I., Gauzer M.E. (1996). Problem of lead pollution on some reservoirs of southeast coast of Caspian sea. - Pressing questions of preservation of the environment and steady development of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. (in Russian). Gauzer M.E., Vasilev V.I. (1996). The prognosis of dynamics of wintering of a waterfowl for Southeast Caspian sea. - Pressing questions of protection of the environment and sustainable development of Turkmenistan. Ashgabat. (in Russian). Isakov Yu.A. (1940). Ecology of wintering of a waterfowl on Southern Caspian sea. – The transactions of national (USSR) ornithological reserve Gasan-Kuli, (I). (in Russian). Isakov J.A., Vorobev K.A. (1940). The review of winterings and migrations of birds on Southern Caspian sea. The transactions of Soviet-national ornithological reserve Gasan-Kuli, (1). (in Russian). Laptev M.K., Sulima V.L., Frejberg L.R. (1934). National ornithological reserve Gasan-Kuli of the TSSR. - Proceedings of the Turkmen inter-departmental Committee on wildlife management and development of natural resources. (1), Ashkhabad. (in Russian). Rustamov A.K., Vasilev V.I. (1976) Natural reserves of the USSR: (Soviet-national Krasnovodskiy ornithological reserve). - Moscow. Znanie. (in Russian).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Turkmenbashy Bay. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016

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