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Location Uzbekistan, Bukhoro
Central coordinates 64o 39.02' East  39o 36.58' North
IBA criteria A1, A3, A4i
Area 32,709 ha
Altitude 219 - 332m
Year of IBA assessment 2006

Uzbekistan Society for the Protection of Birds (Affiliate)

Site description Ecocenter “Jeiran” is situated 42 km to the SE of Bukhara town. It was created in 1977 for the breeding of rare species of animals and the study of their biology (Flint, 1982). It is managed by the State Committee for Nature Protection of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It consists of two areas. The first (5,145 ha) has protected status. It is enclosed by a wire fence 2 m high. According to count data from 2004, there are 899 Goitered Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), 37 kulans (Equus hemionus) and 29 Przewalski’s horses (Equus przewalskii). The landscapes of this area are varied with saltmarsh depression, plains of salt desert, sands, mountain foothills, Kaykasach mountain (332 m above sea level). There are 11 plant associations. The foraging resources fluctuate year by year and seasonally. Productivity can reach from 5 centner/ha to 75 centner/ha. The mountain is situated in the northern part. Four lakes with brackish water are situated in the southern part (Prisyazhnuk, 1986). They are partially fed by artesian wells and partially from the Amu-Bukhara Canal. The Limnadophilous complex is fully dependent on water level from the Amu-Bukhara Canal (Soldatova, 2003, 2004). The second part isn’t enclosed and has an area of 18,350 ha. Land use includes co-ownership (19 farms, electric line, gas line, gypsum-pit) but cattle grazing is prohibited. However there are breaches of the regulations (cattle grazing, vegetation burning, hunting, off-road driving etc). The landscapes of the second are similar to those of the first. There are 10 shallow reservoirs and wells which attract birds and mammals. The biodiversity of the Ecocenter includes: mammals – 31 species, birds – about 257 species, reptiles – 18 species, amphibians - 2 species, fishes - 8 species, invertebrates more than 50 species. Of them 4 species of mammals, about 23 species of birds, 2 species of reptiles, 2 species of fishes and around 6 species of invertebrates are included in International and National Red Data Books.

Key Biodiversity The ecocenter’s avifauna includes 257 species, 37% of all the avifauna of Uzbekistan. 63 species breed: 23 species are rare and 20 are in the Uzbekistan Red Data book (1983). Rare species are: Marmaronetta angustirostris and Chlamуdotis undulata – breeding; Pelecanus onocrotalus, Pelecanus crispus, Pandion haliaetus, Aquila nipalensis, Circaetus gallicus, Falco peregrinus, Anthropoides virgo – regular on migration; 3 species – Haliaeetus albicilla, Aquila heliасa, Aquila chrysaetos wintering; 12 species – Platalea leucorodia, Ciconia nigra, Cygnus olor, Суgnus cygnus, Hieraaetus pennatus, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Falco cherrug, Otis tarda, Tetrax tetrax, Larus ichthyaetus, Pterocles alchata and Passer simplex occur occasionally. Rare migrants include: Podiceps nigricollis, Porzana pusilla, Charadrius leschenaultii, Larus сanus. Regular migrants include: Bucephala clangula, Mergus merganser, Porzana parva, Crex crex, Pluvialis squatarola, Pluvialis apricaria, Tringa erythropus, Xenus cinereus, Calidris alba, Limicola falcinellus, Gallinago media. Vagrants include: Limosa limosa, Stercorarius parasiticus, Larus fuscus, Streptopelia dесаосto, Apus affinis, Ficedula hypoleuca, Acanthis flammea (Mukhina, 2001). There are three basic ornithological complexes: Eremophilous complex – 72 species, 17 nesting; Limnodophilous – 94 species, 25 nesting; Sinantropic– 24 species, 14. During 2000-2004 the eremophilous complex didn’t change, but there was a reduction in the number of nesting birds in both territories - Chlamуdotis undulata: in the first area there was a reduction in numbers due to an increase in the number of ungulates which caused disturbance during display and breeding. In the second area the reduction was the result of the destruction of eggs lying by shepherds' dogs and increases in disturbance during the reproductive period though the number of displaying males remained stable. Rhodospiza obsoleta: formerly it nested colonially in large numbers in low trees (artificial plantings) and at low density in saxsaul forest (in total more than 200 nests). Nowadays it only occurs singly, the reasons for the decline are not known. Limnodophilous complex – a reduction in the number of some species connected with the lake complex and coastal woodland (tugay) has been observed: Panurus biarmicus – the number of nesting birds has sharply reduced. Podiceps ruficollis has ceased to nest. Vanellochettusia leucura and Himantopus himantopus have ceased to nest. Pandion haliaetus – no recent records. Sinantropic– a sharp decrease in the number of Streptopelia senegalensis has been observed owing to displacement by turtle-doves. Athene noctua - numbers have increased.

Non-bird biodiversity: Species listed in both International and National Red Data Books include 4 mammal species, 23 bird species, 2 reptile species, 2 fish species, and about 6 insect species. Mammals - 35 species. Insectivores: Hemiechinus auritus, Erinaceus hupamelas, Crocidura suaveolens, Diplomesodon pulchellus are common but not numerous. Bats: Rhinolophus hipposideros, Rhinolophus bocharicus are observed. Carnivores: Vulpes vulpes karagan, Vulpes corsac, Felis libyca – breed, but their numbers are reduced. Mustelids: Meles meles, Vormela peregusna, Mustela eversmanni are not numerous. Even-toed and odd-toed ungulates: Equus caballus przewalskii, Equus hemionus onager, Gazella subgutturosa - breed, stable numbers, trend of regular increases in number (Soldatova, 2003, 2004). There are also 4 individuals of Equus asinus at the site. There are scattered records of Sus scrofa. Lagomorphs and rodents: Lepus tolai, Myocastor coypus, Spermophilus fulvus, Spermophilopsis leptodactylus, Allactaga severtzovi, Allactaga elater, Paradipus ctenodactylus, Dipus sagitta, Mus musculus, Nesokia indica, Meriones meridianus, Meriones libycus, Rhombomys opimus, Cricetulus migratorius, Ondatra zibethicus, Ellobius tancrei (Tupikin, 2003; Rogovin, 2003; Ishunin, 1983). Reptiles – 20 species: Agrionemys horsfieldi, Teratoscincus scincus, Crossobamon eversmanni, Cyrtopodion caspius, Cyrtopodion fedschenkoi, Trapelus sanquinolentus, Phrynocephalus interscapularis, Phrynocephalus helioscopus, Phrynocephalus ocellatus, Varanus griseus, Eremias grammica, Eremias lineolata, Eremias velox, Eryx milaris, Natrix tessellata, Coluber karelini, Coluber ravergieri, Spalerosophis diadema, Psammophis lineolatum (Karmanov, 2001), Lythorhynchus ridgewayi. Amphibians – 2 species: Bufo viridis and Rana ridibunda. Fishes – 8 species. Invertebrates – more than 50 species.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris passage  2004-2006  20-40 adults only  good  A1  Vulnerable 
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca breeding  2004-2006  30-200 adults only  good  A1  Near Threatened 
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala winter  2004-2006  20-62 adults only  good  A1  Endangered 
Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus passage  2000-2009  100-1,000 adults only  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus passage  2000-2004  8-50 adults only  good  A1  Vulnerable 
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo passage  2000-2004  500-1,000 adults only  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Saker Falcon Falco cherrug unknown  2000-2004  1 individuals  A1  Endangered 
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus winter  2000-2004  14 individuals  good  A1  Near Threatened 
Chlamydotis undulata resident  2000-2004  4-25 individuals  good  A3  Not Recognised 
Pallas's Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus breeding  2004-2006  6-10 individuals  good  A3  Least Concern 
Pallid Scops-owl Otus brucei breeding  2004-2006  10-20 individuals  good  A3  Least Concern 
Streaked Scrub-warbler Scotocerca inquieta breeding  2004-2006  50-100 individuals  good  A3  Least Concern 
Sykes's Warbler Hippolais rama breeding  2004-2006  100-200 individuals  good  A3  Least Concern 
Desert Warbler Sylvia nana breeding  2004-2006  100 individuals  good  A3  Least Concern 
Desert Finch Rhodopechys obsoletus breeding  2004-2006  200-400 individuals  good  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2006 high not assessed low
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution air-borne pollutants - type unknown/unrecorded happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution domestic & urban waste water - type unknown/unrecorded happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Pollution garbage & solid waste happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Most of site (50-90%) covered (including the most critical parts for important bird species)  No management plan exists but the management planning process has begun  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  low 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Dzheiran Ecocentre Breeding Reserve 5,145 protected area contained by site 16,522  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Shrubland   39%
Desert   44%
Wetlands (inland)   14%
Rocky areas   1%
Artificial - terrestrial   2%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 23%
nature conservation and research 70%
urban/industrial/transport 2%
other 5%
Notes: In 2-nd territory on a frontier part is working quarry on extraction of plaster; industrial - transport agencies; the city garbage dump; automobile line passes from the direction of one part of an ecocenter, from the direction of another - the railway.

Protection status The Ecocenter «Jeiran» is a State institution. It was created in 1977 for the breeding of rare species of animal and the study of their biology (Flint, 1982). It is administered by the State Committee For Nature Protection of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

References 1. Soldatova N.V. Field working diaries for the period 2000-2004. (in Russian) 2. Mitropolskiy M.G.Data of field observation for 2004, 2005, 2006 (in Russian) 3. Mitropolskiy O.V. Data of field observation for 1996, 2005, 2006 (in Russian) 4. Mitropolskiy M.G., Soldatova N.V. (2004) Nutrition of eagle owl in Ecocenter "Jeiran" (in print, in Russian).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Dzheiran Ecocentre. Downloaded from on 20/10/2016

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