|Central coordinates||64o 49.53' East 39o 51.05' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i, A4iii|
|Altitude||222 - 262m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2006|
Site description The IBA is situated in the southwestern part of the Kyzylkum Desert and includes Lake Tudakul, a small swamp and Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir. Lake Tudakul is situated 23 km NE of the town of Bukhara and Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir 1 km NW of Tudakul. The water in Tudakul is saline. Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir was created to provide the areas situated in the arid zone with drinking water. the western and northern parts of Lake Tudakul are free of any shoreline vegetation; the south and eastern parts are overgrown with reeds and tamarisk, from 10-15 to 150-200 m in width. The lake is more or less spherical, its average width is 30 km, average depth reaches 5-8 m. The western part of the lake has a high and precipitous coast. Beyond it is a marshland with isolated waterbodies surrounded with reed. Several open islets rise in the central and northern parts of the marshland. The water is the reservoir is fresh. High islets and promontories occur in the central and northern parts, which shelter cormorants, gulls and birds of prey. The shores are mainly stony and precipitous; they are practically free of vegetation. Flat coasts are overgrown with halophytes and saltwort. Although only a few sites have been formally proposed under the A3 biome-restricted criteria (for biome CA04b Eurasian Desert and Semi-desert), many of the IBAs in the Kyzylkum Desert region support populations of biome-restricted species and, effectively, form a network of sites throughout the area.
Key Biodiversity No special studies of the avifauna of Lake Tudakul and adjoining areas have ever been carried out, but the fauna of the desert part of Bukhara province and its water bodies is well explored. More than 250 bird species have been recorded there. Both pelican species are recorded during migration and Dalmatian Pelican winters, as well as two species of Cormorant. In these seasons, five species of Podiceps; 4 species of Pelecaniformes; 12 Ciconiiformes; 1 Phoenicopterus; 23 Anseriformes; 18 Falconiformes; 5 Rallidae; 2 species of cranes; 29 shorebirds and 14 Laridae have been recorded. The wetland avifauna has developed comparatively recently with the development of reedbeds and formation of conditions suitable for habitation. Therefore, the numbers of nesting birds are on the increase but have not been evaluated fully. Three species of rare birds included in the IUCN Red List nest - Oxyura leucocephala, Marmaronetta angustirostris and Aythya nyroca. Pelecanus crispus, Branta ruficollis, Anser erythropus, Haliaeetus leucoryphus and Chlamydotis undulata are recorded on migration and wintering. There are also four species included in the national Red Data Book nesting - Platalea leucorodia, Plegadis falcinellus, Egretta garzetta and Phalacrocorax pygmaeus. Pelecanus onocrotalus, Cygnus olor, Pandion haliaetus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Aquila nipalensis, Falco peregrinus and Larus ichthyaetus are migratory and wintering Red Data Book species. This territory is of international importance for the sustainability of migratory and wintering waterbirds. In winter 2000, 55.345 birds were recorded during the aerial count. In 2003, during the terrestrial counts, were recorded 143.392 waterbirds in 2003; in 2004, 168.533 birds; in 2005, 96.358 birds.
Non-bird biodiversity: The following mammals have been recorded: Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Felis lybica, Mustela eversmanni, Vormela peregusna, Meles meles; of rodents, Rhombomys opimus, Meriones tamariscinus, Ellobius tancrei, Nesokia indica, Allactaga elater, A. severtzovi and Spermophilus fulvus are resident; Lepus tolai and Hemiechinus auritus are common. In recent years, the introduced Ondatra zibetica and Myocastor coypus have been noted. Amphibians are represented by Rana ridibundus and Bufo viridis. Reptiles are represented by Agrionemys horsfieldi, Natrix tesselata, Coluber karelini, C. ravergieri, Erix miliaris, Psammophis lineolatum, Phrynocephalus helioscopus, Phrynocephalus interscapularis, Eremias lineolata, Eremias scripta, Trapelus sanguinolentus, Cyrtopodion caspius and Teratoscincus scincus. The fish fauna is comprised of 10 species. The flora has not been studied in detail, but it includes species typical of wet parts of the desert areas of Bukhara.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus||passage||2001-2002||8-51 adults only||poor||A1||Vulnerable|
|Greylag Goose Anser anser||passage||1996-2006||11-4,800 adults only||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope||passage||1996-2006||40-5,500 adults only||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Mallard Anas platyrhynchos||winter||1996-2009||3,000-150,000 adults only||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris||winter||1996-2006||11-110 adults only||medium||A1, A4i||Vulnerable|
|Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina||winter||1990-2009||300-28,000 adults only||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca||passage||1996-2006||2-175 adults only||medium||A1||Near Threatened|
|Smew Mergellus albellus||winter||1996-2006||50-775 adults only||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Goosander Mergus merganser||winter||1996-2006||2-300 adults only||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala||winter||2000-2008||2-278 adults only||medium||A1, A4i||Endangered|
|Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena||passage||1996-2996||2-2,000 adults only||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis||passage||1996-2006||250-5,800 adults only||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia||breeding||1996-2005||5-150 breeding pairs||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Great White Egret Ardea alba||passage||1996-2006||50-1,000 adults only||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus||passage||1996-2006||2-2,500 adults only||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus||winter||1996-2008||6-800 adults only||medium||A1, A4i||Vulnerable|
|Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus||passage||1996-2006||40-3,200 adults only||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo||passage||1996-2006||70-7,800 adults only||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Common Coot Fulica atra||winter||1996-2006||60-22,000 adults only||poor||A4i||Least Concern|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||winter||2000-2005||55,345-168,533 individuals||medium||A4iii|
|2006||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agricultural expansion and intensification||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Residential and commercial development||tourism and recreation areas||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||10%|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
Protection status Currently, only one water protection zone of the Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir is protected. It is of importance as a source of fresh drinking water and roosting area of migratory and wintering birds. It is necessary to create an ornithological reserve on the Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir and beyond the dam of Lake Tudakul, on the marshy area which is the breeding ground of Marmaronetta angustirostris, Aythya nyroca and Oxyura leucocephala. For Lake Tudakul, it is necessary to develop a management plan for coordinated use of the area. The majority of the wintering and migrating birds is concentrated in the territory of the hunting farms.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014
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