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Location Uzbekistan, Bukhoro,Navoi
Central coordinates 64o 49.53' East  39o 51.05' North
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii
Area 33,648 ha
Altitude 222 - 262m
Year of IBA assessment 2006

Uzbekistan Society for the Protection of Birds (Affiliate)

Site description The IBA is situated in the southwestern part of the Kyzylkum Desert and includes Lake Tudakul, a small swamp and Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir. Lake Tudakul is situated 23 km NE of the town of Bukhara and Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir 1 km NW of Tudakul. The water in Tudakul is saline. Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir was created to provide the areas situated in the arid zone with drinking water. the western and northern parts of Lake Tudakul are free of any shoreline vegetation; the south and eastern parts are overgrown with reeds and tamarisk, from 10-15 to 150-200 m in width. The lake is more or less spherical, its average width is 30 km, average depth reaches 5-8 m. The western part of the lake has a high and precipitous coast. Beyond it is a marshland with isolated waterbodies surrounded with reed. Several open islets rise in the central and northern parts of the marshland. The water is the reservoir is fresh. High islets and promontories occur in the central and northern parts, which shelter cormorants, gulls and birds of prey. The shores are mainly stony and precipitous; they are practically free of vegetation. Flat coasts are overgrown with halophytes and saltwort. Although only a few sites have been formally proposed under the A3 biome-restricted criteria (for biome CA04b Eurasian Desert and Semi-desert), many of the IBAs in the Kyzylkum Desert region support populations of biome-restricted species and, effectively, form a network of sites throughout the area.

Key Biodiversity No special studies of the avifauna of Lake Tudakul and adjoining areas have ever been carried out, but the fauna of the desert part of Bukhara province and its water bodies is well explored. More than 250 bird species have been recorded there. Both pelican species are recorded during migration and Dalmatian Pelican winters, as well as two species of Cormorant. In these seasons, five species of Podiceps; 4 species of Pelecaniformes; 12 Ciconiiformes; 1 Phoenicopterus; 23 Anseriformes; 18 Falconiformes; 5 Rallidae; 2 species of cranes; 29 shorebirds and 14 Laridae have been recorded. The wetland avifauna has developed comparatively recently with the development of reedbeds and formation of conditions suitable for habitation. Therefore, the numbers of nesting birds are on the increase but have not been evaluated fully. Three species of rare birds included in the IUCN Red List nest - Oxyura leucocephala, Marmaronetta angustirostris and Aythya nyroca. Pelecanus crispus, Branta ruficollis, Anser erythropus, Haliaeetus leucoryphus and Chlamydotis undulata are recorded on migration and wintering. There are also four species included in the national Red Data Book nesting - Platalea leucorodia, Plegadis falcinellus, Egretta garzetta and Phalacrocorax pygmaeus. Pelecanus onocrotalus, Cygnus olor, Pandion haliaetus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Aquila nipalensis, Falco peregrinus and Larus ichthyaetus are migratory and wintering Red Data Book species. This territory is of international importance for the sustainability of migratory and wintering waterbirds. In winter 2000, 55.345 birds were recorded during the aerial count. In 2003, during the terrestrial counts, were recorded 143.392 waterbirds in 2003; in 2004, 168.533 birds; in 2005, 96.358 birds.

Non-bird biodiversity: The following mammals have been recorded: Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Felis lybica, Mustela eversmanni, Vormela peregusna, Meles meles; of rodents, Rhombomys opimus, Meriones tamariscinus, Ellobius tancrei, Nesokia indica, Allactaga elater, A. severtzovi and Spermophilus fulvus are resident; Lepus tolai and Hemiechinus auritus are common. In recent years, the introduced Ondatra zibetica and Myocastor coypus have been noted. Amphibians are represented by Rana ridibundus and Bufo viridis. Reptiles are represented by Agrionemys horsfieldi, Natrix tesselata, Coluber karelini, C. ravergieri, Erix miliaris, Psammophis lineolatum, Phrynocephalus helioscopus, Phrynocephalus interscapularis, Eremias lineolata, Eremias scripta, Trapelus sanguinolentus, Cyrtopodion caspius and Teratoscincus scincus. The fish fauna is comprised of 10 species. The flora has not been studied in detail, but it includes species typical of wet parts of the desert areas of Bukhara.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus passage  2001-2002  8-51 adults only  poor  A1  Vulnerable 
Greylag Goose Anser anser passage  1996-2006  11-4,800 adults only  medium  A4i  Least Concern 
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope passage  1996-2006  40-5,500 adults only  medium  A4i  Least Concern 
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos winter  1996-2009  3,000-150,000 adults only  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris winter  1996-2006  11-110 adults only  medium  A1, A4i  Vulnerable 
Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina winter  1990-2009  300-28,000 adults only  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca passage  1996-2006  2-175 adults only  medium  A1  Near Threatened 
Smew Mergellus albellus winter  1996-2006  50-775 adults only  medium  A4i  Least Concern 
Goosander Mergus merganser winter  1996-2006  2-300 adults only  medium  A4i  Least Concern 
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala winter  2000-2008  2-278 adults only  medium  A1, A4i  Endangered 
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena passage  1996-2996  2-2,000 adults only  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis passage  1996-2006  250-5,800 adults only  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia breeding  1996-2005  5-150 breeding pairs  medium  A4i  Least Concern 
Great White Egret Ardea alba passage  1996-2006  50-1,000 adults only  medium  A4i  Least Concern 
Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus passage  1996-2006  2-2,500 adults only  good  A4i  Least Concern 
Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus winter  1996-2008  6-800 adults only  medium  A1, A4i  Vulnerable 
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus passage  1996-2006  40-3,200 adults only  medium  A4i  Least Concern 
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo passage  1996-2006  70-7,800 adults only  medium  A4i  Least Concern 
Common Coot Fulica atra winter  1996-2006  60-22,000 adults only  poor  A4i  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  2000-2005  55,345-168,533 individuals  medium  A4iii   

IBA Monitoring

2006 high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Biological resource use fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Shrubland   5%
Desert   20%
Wetlands (inland)   65%
Artificial - terrestrial   10%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 50%
fisheries/aquaculture 40%
hunting 10%
tourism/recreation 20%
urban/industrial/transport 10%
water management 50%

Protection status Currently, only one water protection zone of the Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir is protected. It is of importance as a source of fresh drinking water and roosting area of migratory and wintering birds. It is necessary to create an ornithological reserve on the Kuyu-Mazar Reservoir and beyond the dam of Lake Tudakul, on the marshy area which is the breeding ground of Marmaronetta angustirostris, Aythya nyroca and Oxyura leucocephala. For Lake Tudakul, it is necessary to develop a management plan for coordinated use of the area. The majority of the wintering and migrating birds is concentrated in the territory of the hunting farms.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife