|Central coordinates||66o 28.36' East 37o 44.25' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A3|
|Altitude||900 - 3,139m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2006|
Site description The IBA occupies the southwest slope of the Koytendag (Kugitang) ridge - the southwest termination of the Hissar range of the Pamir-Alay mountain system. Administratively the IBA is located in the southeast of Turkmenistan, and occupies the middle and high mountain zone at heights of 900 to 3,139m above sea level (Ayribaba mountain).
Key Biodiversity The avifauna of the southwest Koytendag slope consists of three ornithological complexes: Turanian deserts, Kopetdag-Khorosanian and Pamiro-Alay mountain system, with biome CA04, CA06 and CA07 species represented. The avifauna includes 144 species (15 orders, 38 families, 89 genus). Nesting birds – 122 species, non-migratory – 55 species, passage-nesting – 67 species, migratory – 18 species and passage – 14 species. Passeriformes (18 families, 53 genus, 91 species) and Falconiformes (2 families, 12 genus, 22 species) are most representative in terms of the number of species. 13 species are listed in the Red Data Book of Turkmenistan. Species of the Sino-Himalayan temperate forest (Biome CA07) are: Parus rufonuchalis and Parus flavipectus and Certhia himalayana. Those of Biome CA06 are: Ammoperdix griseogularis, Irania gutturalis, Oenanthe finschii, Oenanthe picata capistrata, Sitta tephronota tephronota, Emberiza stewarti and Emberiza buchanani. Biome CA05 is represented by: Rhodopechys sanguinea, Montifringilla nivalis, Сalandrella acutirostris, Anthus spinoletta and Tichodroma muraria and Biome CA04 by: Scotocerca inquieta and Emberiza bruniceps. On migration: Aquila nipalensis and Aquila heliaca occur. Criterion А1 applies for: Aegypius monachus and Falco cherrug. Falco naumanni also occurs but numbers are insufficient to justify inclusion under this criterion.
Non-bird biodiversity: The flora of the IBA is represented by 982 species (430 genus and 86 families). The main plants are angiosperms (99.0%), which include a few ancient representatives: gymnosperms, ferns and Equisetaceae (10 species from 9 genus). Ten main families make up 64.8% of the composition of the flora – a typical feature of ancient-Mediterranean flora. Superpolymorphic genera are: Astragalus (69 species), Allium (32) and Cousinia (25). The list of vertebrate animals includes 10 species of fish, 2 amphibians, 28 reptiles, 144 birds and 51 mammals. In total 226 vertebrate taxa. 30 species of amphibians and reptiles have been recorded, with 2 species of amphibians, 1 - turtle, 15 - lizards and 14 — snakes (Shukurov, 1975, 1976 ; Ataev, 1985; Мakeev, 1987; Habibulov, 1990). 51 species of mammal have been recorded including: insectivores – 4, Chiroptera – 13, lagomorphs – 1, rodents – 10, predators - 11, ungulates – 5. In the Red List of IUCN and the Red Data Book of Turkmenistan are listed 18 rare species, including endemics: Lynx, Cervus elaphus, Capra falconeri and Ovis vignei. The most threatened are Cаpra falconeri, Ursus arctor, Hyaena hyaena, Lynx lynx, and Cervus elaphus bactrianus. The population of leopard (Panthera pardus) in Koytendag has possibly disappeared. (Mammals of Turkmenistan, 1995; Lukarevsky, etc., 2001).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|See-see Partridge Ammoperdix griseogularis||resident||2003-2006||50-60 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|Saker Falcon Falco cherrug||resident||2003-2006||3-5 breeding pairs||good||A1||Endangered|
|Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus||breeding||1967-2006||6-7 breeding pairs||good||A1||Near Threatened|
|Azure Tit Parus cyanus||resident||2003-2006||30-32 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|Dark-grey Tit Parus rufonuchalis||resident||2003-2006||25-30 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|Sulphur-bellied Warbler Phylloscopus griseolus||breeding||2003-2006||10-15 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|Eastern Rock-nuthatch Sitta tephronota||resident||2003-2006||65-70 breeding pairs||good||A3||Least Concern|
|Bar-tailed Treecreeper Certhia himalayana||resident||2003-2006||5-7 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|White-throated Robin Irania gutturalis||breeding||2003-2006||20-25 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|Finsch's Wheatear Oenanthe finschii||breeding||2003-2005||15-20 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata||breeding||2003-2006||45-50 breeding pairs||good||A3||Least Concern|
|White-winged Grosbeak Mycerobas carnipes||resident||2003-2006||4-5 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|Chestnut-breasted Bunting Emberiza stewarti||breeding||2003-2006||25-30 breeding pairs||medium||A3||Least Concern|
|2006||very high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data|
|Climate change and severe weather||habitat shifting and alteration||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||very high|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||high|
|Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||very high|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Hodjakaraulskiy||Nature Sanctuary or Partial Reserve||6,011||protected area overlaps with site||6,011|
|Hodjapil||Nature Sanctuary or Partial Reserve||31,635||protected area overlaps with site||31,635|
|Hordjaburdjibelend||Nature Sanctuary or Partial Reserve||17,592||protected area is adjacent to site||0|
|Karluk||Nature Sanctuary or Partial Reserve||40,000||protected area is adjacent to site||0|
|Kugitang||State Nature Reserve||27,139||protected area overlaps with site||27,139|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||18%|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||15%|
Protection status The territory of the Koytendag reserve together with its zakazniks is represented by a single block which extends along the border of Turkmenistan with Uzbekistan, and is adjacent to Surhandarinskiy reserve (UZ). Koytendag reserve is located on the right bank of the river Amu Darya and situated on the middle and upper zone of the southwest ridge of Koytendag mountain, making up 49% of the area the IBA. Part of the habitats of rare species of animals and plants (15-20%) is outside of the reserve.
References Atayev, Ch.А. (1985). Reptiles of mountains of Turkmenistan. Ashgabat. Ylym. p. 344 (in Russian). Bukreev S.A. (1997) Ornithogeography and reservation matters of Turkmenistan. Мoscow: 157 p. (in Russian). Efimenko N.N. (2004) Birds of the western part of Koytendag mountains // Problems of desert development, №2. С.56-58. (in Russian). Lukarevskiy V.S., Efimenko, N.N.(2001) Modern condition of a urial population in Turkmenistan. Problems of desert developments. №4: 40-45. (in Russian). Makeev V.M., Bozhansky A.T., (1988). Some results herpetological inspections East Turkmenistan /Rare and little-studied animals of Turkmenistan. Ashgabat. Ylym. (in Russian). Marochkina V.V. (1993) Materials on chiropterans of East Turkmenistan // Proceedings of the Turkmen Academy of Sciences. Biology Sciences, №3. (in Russian). Nikitin V.V., Geldyhanov A.M. (1988). Identification guide of plants of Turkmenistan. Leningrad. Nauka, 673. (in Russian). Habibulov M.R. (1990) Reptiles of Kugitang-Tau (East Turkmenistan): Fauna, ecology, protection. (PhD. Thesis). (in Russian). Hodzhakuliev A.R. (1983). Nature complexes of Gaurdak-Kugitang region and questions of their development. (PhD. Thesis). Ashgabat .25 p. (in Russian). Rajapov M. Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Turkmenistan. Ashgabat, 2002. (in Russian, Turkmen and English). Rajapov M. Turkmenistan. Country Study on the Status of Biodiversity. Ashgabat, 2002. (in Russian, Turkmen and English).
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