|Location||Haiti, Département du Nord-est|
|Central coordinates||71o 46.53' West 19o 40.39' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Year of IBA assessment||2008|
Ornithological information The bird diversity of this lagoon is far higher than any other area surveyed in the coastal plain of the Northeast. The species diversity will also increase in winter months when migratory species arrive from northern latitudes and utilize the lagoon. Last inventory of July-August 1994 was made with binoculars only between 8:30 am to noon and 2pm to 4 pm twice. Early and nocturnal birds were not inventoried. A bird species of special concern is the flamingo. This species had not been scientifically reported in the area since 1948 (Ottenwalder et al. 1990). In addition, local people do not understand bagging birds. The rings are believed to be unnatural and mystic, therefore the scientific information they carry is unfortunately lost. From surveys, fishermen and local riverines reported that men from Cap-Haitian come to hunt Flamingos for feathers and tongues (Flamingo tongue is considered a delicatessen since colonial time) and ducks (during the cool season). Due to the fact that some rich businessmen from Cap-Haitian rented the land, in 2004 the much-degraded mangrove of 1994 grew back. In June 2004, Coots were reported to be hunted and sold in Fort-Liberté as a substitute to chicken or ducks that are more expensive (a coot was sold for 50 gourdes, a chicken for 200 gourdes). Interestingly enough, some coot consumers are members of environmental associations and don't make the difference between Caribbean and American coots that are both called "poule d'eau" (water chicken). Besides, the surrounding dry forest and the close seashore provides with marine birds. The Bay of Fort-Liberté and coastal zone is home to many species. Birds use the shoreline habitat for homes and for foraging.
Site description Lagon-aux-boeufs is a 450 hectare brackish estuary lake (20 per 1000) located at N 19 40' 39'' and W71 46' 53'' east of Fort-Liberté, in the coastal plain of Dauphin. Limited to the north by the Baie de Mancenille, east by the Massacre River and the town of Melliac, ouest by Dérac and south by the tertiary road to Melliac. Lagon-aux-Boeufs, together with the Fort-Liberté Bay and the Massacre River delta forms part of an ecoregion of outstanding value for waterfowls and marine birds. It can be considered as a natural extension of the Siete Hermano - Laguna Saladilla and Laguna Salinas of the Dominican Republic. This small wetland is exploited by local fishermen, hunters for migratory ducks and coots, as well as recreation by school and youth groups. A number of farmers use it to clean and quench their cattle, and poor women for washing clothes. Population around this estuarine wetland is estimated at 20,000 people living also on fisheries, agriculture, charcoal making and occasionally boat rides. They are former employees and descendants of the sisal plantation and factory, attracted there by foreign investment during the mid 20th Century, and left alone after this facilities due to progress in plastic that replaced the traditional sisal ropes and bags. Its proximity to Fort-Liberté and Ouanaminth as well as the agricultural infrastructures of the Fort-Dauphin sisal plantation offer an opportunity to develop a multiple use area as suggested to the state of Haiti in 1994 by the Route 2004 project.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea||resident||1994||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Antillean Mango Anthracothorax dominicus||resident||1994||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Broad-billed Tody Todus subulatus||resident||1994||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Black-crowned Palm-tanager Phaenicophilus palmarum||resident||1994||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: recreation by school and youth groups boat rides|
|Notes: A number of farmers use it to clean and quench their cattle,|
|Notes: poor women for washing clothes charcoal making|
Other biodiversity American Crocodile Sea Turtles West Indian Manatees Flamingo West Indian Whistling Duck, Piping Plover, Caribbean Coot if confirmed.
Management considerations Threats to the site have been divided in 4 ranks: very high, high, medium and low. The threats per rank will be mention followed by the source of it. Very high threats are: habitat destruction (need for production area, economic growth, energy crisis and poverty); water pollution (incompatible water utilization (laundry, cattle drinking water)); introduced animals (cats, dogs, mongooses and rats behavior, grazing by cattle); surface water diversion (irrigation and industrial needs); fisheries (cray and shrimp anarchic fishing); fuelwood extraction (energy needs, prohibitive price of other source of cooking energy and non perishable product on demand); and soil compacting (cattle weight and frequency to the lake). High threats are: elimination of bird species (competition for resources (fish eating birds) and illegal and non sustainable fishing); conversion to agriculture (food security program, national agricultural action plan, governmental priorities and international community fund availability); demography (demographic growth, accessibility to irrigated land and accessibility to free port zone); fishing practices (poverty and perception of an infinite resource, incompatible gear, and perception of a productive area for aquaculture); pollutant load (solid waste and garbage disposal); introduction of exotic species (food security program, increase of production area (fishery production, conversion of wetland into rice fields), drainage and perception of wetland as a useless space); and nutrient load (nutrient leaching from agriculture and lack of septic tanks). Medium threats are: hunting (perception of infinite resource, inadequate regulations (incomplete MARNDR calendar, absence of bag limit per species, absence of enforcement)); and recreational activities (incompatible behaviors and absence of awareness/environmental education programs). Low threats are: sedimentation (upper land erosion); and erosion (wind and rain).
Protection status Protected area is only proposed.
Conservation response In 1994, a multidisciplinary team composed by University of Paris, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Projet 2004, FAO, Ministry of Environment, University of Florida and Université Quisqueya were engaged to survey the Département du Nord-est coastal zone as a contribution to the protection of prehistorical and historical sites in their natural environment (for more details, see Atlas côtier du Nord'est d'Haïti). The results of the inventories stimulated University of Florida to assist the Ministry of Environment in filling a biosphere reserve nomination form was submitted to the Ministry of Environment for official application near UNESCO-MAB. In 2004, the United Nations Development Program assisted the Ministry of Environment in producing with local participation, a departmental environmental action plan. Lagon-aux-boeufs, along with Baie de Mancenille and Baie de Fort-Liberté were identified as recreational areas and areas that should be protected (see Plan d'actions departemental pour l'environnement et le développement durable du Nord-est).
References Allen G. M., 1942. Extinct and vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere with the Marine Species of all the Oceans. Pennsylvania : American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, Intelligence Printing Co. Allen R.P., 1956. The flamingos : their life history and survival with special reference to the American or West Indian Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber). National Audubon Society Research Report No. 5. Anonym, 1985. Liste des animaux et des végétaux en voie de disparition et des sites naturels sous protection à protéger. Port-au-Prince, DAMIEN, Bulletin Agricole, 37 : 30-36. AOU, 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. The species of birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands. 6th Edition. American Ornithologists Union : 877 p. Barker H.D. and Dardeau W.S., 1930. La Flore d’Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Service Technique du Département de l’Agriculture et de l’Enseignement Professionnel 66-70 et 198-200. Bond J., 1978. Twenty-second supplement to the Check-list of Birds of the West Indies (1956). Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia : 20 p. Bond, J. 1928. The distribution and habits of the birds of the Republic of Haiti. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 80 : 483-521. Bond, J. 1984. Twenty-fifth supplement to the Check-list of Birds of the West Indies (1956). Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia : 22 p. Bond, J., 1928. The distribution and habits of the birds of the Republic of Haiti. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 80 : 483-521. Magny, E. 1991. Haiti, ressources naturelles, environnement: une nouvelle approche. Editions Henri Deschamps, Port-au-Prince, 252 p. McPherson, H. 1997. Les oiseaux. Les éléments de l'environnement. Pp. 16-21. In Ménanteau L. and J.-R. Vanney Coord. Scient./editors. Atlas côtier du nord-est d’Haïti. Environnement et patrimoine culturel de la région de Fort-Liberté. Projet Route 2004. Ministère de la Culture (Haïti)/Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement, iv+62 pp. Ministère de l’Environnement et Ministère de la Planification et de la Coopération Externe. 2004. Module 4.2. Plan communal de Ferrier. Plan d'Plan d’Actions Départemental pour l’Environnement et le Développement Durable du Nord-Est. Capacité 21 et PNUD/Haiti. 32 p. Scott, D.A. and Carbonell, M. 1986. Directory of Neotropical wetlands. IUCN, Cambridge and International Wildfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau, Slimbridge. 684 pp. Sergile, F. E. 1997. Les élements de l'environnement (The natural environment of the extreme northeast). Pp. 16-21. In Ménanteau L. and J.-R. Vanney Coord. Scient./editors). Atlas côtier du nord-est d’Haïti. Environnement et patrimoine culturel de la région de Fort-Liberté. (Coastal Atlas of Northearstern Haiti). Projet Route 2004. Ministère de la Culture (Haïti)/Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement. iv+62 pp. Thorbjarnarson, J.B. 1988. The status and ecology of the American crocodile in Haiti. Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci. 33:1-86 Wood H.A., 1963. Northern Haiti: land, land use, and settlement. A geographical investigation of the Département du Nord. Toronto, Univ. Toronto Press : XV-168 p. Woods et al. 1986. The West Indian Flamingo in Haiti: aerial surveys and review status. Flamingo Research Specialist Group, Newsletter 3:19-23
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