email a friend
printable version
Location Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands), Bonaire
Central coordinates 68o 24.00' West  12o 17.06' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3, A4i, B4i
Area 6,906 ha
Altitude 0 - 243m
Year of IBA assessment 2014

Site description Established in 1969, Washington-Slagbaai National Park, at 6,900 hectares, encompasses approximately a quarter of Bonaire at the northern end of the island. The park encompasses the area of the island with the greatest geographic relief including the highest point of the island, Mount Brandaris, a 243 m ancient eroded volcano. The park was once a large privately-owned agricultural ranch (exporting animals, and producing charcoal and aloe resin) and it still has free-roaming goats and donkeys (now accompanied by pigs) such that much of the habitat still bears the signatures of disturbance. The park has a generally well-maintained but narrow and sometimes steep road network for visitor access and is open daily with a minimal fee.

Key Biodiversity The park is an important nesting, roosting, and foraging area for the Globally Vulnerable Yellow-shouldered Amazon, sometimes known to support at least 1% of the global population of the species (the park is estimated to support 300-400 individuals). The number of Greater Flamingos using the coastal habitats in the park for foraging regularly exceeds the regional population threshold of 500 birds with the largest numbers at Goto Lake. Small numbers also occasionally breed within the park. Small numbers of the Near-Threatened Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea breed in a pond near the entrance to the park. The park is an important breeding area for terns with 1% of more of the regional populations of Least Terns and Sandwich “Cayenne” Tern regularly breeding within the park. Although not reaching 1% thresholds, the park also hosts breeding concentrations of Snowy and Wilson’s Plover and migratory concentrations of shorebirds including Lesser Yellowlegs and Stilt Sandpiper. The park protects an important example of globally threatened dry scrub forest habitat with its avifaunal community including the restricted range Pearly-eyed Thrasher, as well as characteristic species (some of them distinctive subspecies) like White-tailed Nightjar, Brown-throated Parakeet, Caribbean Elaenia, Black-whiskered Vireo, Scaly-naped Pigeon, Bare-eyed Pigeon, Ruby-topaz Hummingbird, Blue-tailed Emerald, Yellow Oriole. Singles of the Near-Threatened migrant Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi and Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulean have been observed in this IBA.

Non-bird biodiversity: One endemic plant species, one lizard endemic to island, at least seven endemic to ABCs, one subspecies of lizard endemic to island. A number of land snails endemic to either Bonaire or to the ABC islands are reported: Tudora aurantia, Tudora maculata, Leptinaria harterti, Brachypodella gibbonsi, Stoastomops walkeri (Moolenbeek 2006). The endemic freshwater fish Poecilia vandepolli is present in the freshwater streams and ponds (Vonk et al. 2007).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
American Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber resident  2007  500 individuals  poor  B4i  Least Concern 
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis resident  2007  360 individuals  poor  B4i  Least Concern 
Common Tern Sterna hirundo breeding  2007  20 individuals  poor  A4i  Least Concern 
Least Tern Sternula antillarum breeding  2007  412 individuals  poor  B4i  Least Concern 
Bare-eyed Pigeon Patagioenas corensis resident  2007  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-shouldered Amazon Amazona barbadensis resident  2007  250 individuals  poor  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Caribbean Elaenia Elaenia martinica resident  2007  unknown  A2  Least Concern 
Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus resident  2007  20 individuals  poor  A2  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Washington-Slagbaai (Bonaire) National Park 5,900 protected area contained by site 0  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Shrubland   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research major

Protection status Washington-Slagbaai National Park is a protected area since establishment in 1969. Both Goto Lake and Boca Slagbaai (within the park boundaries) are designated Ramsar sites.

Further web sources of information 

Site profile from Important Bird Areas in the Caribbean: key sites for conservation (BirdLife International 2008)

References Ligon, J. (2005);De Freitas et al. (2005);Debrot et al.(2006);Moolenbeek, R. (2006); Prins, T.G. & Nijman, V. (2005); Prins, T.G (2005);Vonk R. et al. (2007); Voous, K. H. (1983);Wells, J. V. and A. C.Wells (2006).

Contribute  Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife