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Location Spain, Andalucía
Central coordinates 6o 25.00' West  37o 0.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6
Area 230,000 ha
Altitude 0 - 100m
Year of IBA assessment 2000

SEO/BirdLife



Site description One of the largest wetlands in Europe, at the mouth of the River Guadalquivir. In the north and east natural vegetation has been replaced with rice cultivation, irrigated cultivation, aquaculture, and saltpans, although there are still expanses of halophytic scrub. Marshes, Mediterranean scrub, woodland and sand-dunes occur to the south. The marshes are flooded only seasonally with some permanent rivers and lagoons. The main human activities include arable agriculture, cattle-grazing, hunting, fishing, fish-farming, research, apiculture (`Other' land-use, below) and tourism.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Northern Pintail Anas acuta winter  1989  13,500-17,000 individuals  poor  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Greylag Goose Anser anser winter  1995  45,000-100,000 individuals  medium  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna winter  1989  2,300-5,000 individuals  medium  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Gadwall Anas strepera winter  1992  3,000-8,000 individuals  poor  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope winter  1992  80,000-100,000 individuals  poor  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata winter  1989  40,000-80,000 individuals  poor  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Common Teal Anas crecca winter  1989  70,000-160,000 individuals  poor  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris resident  1996  5-10 breeding pairs  good  A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C6  Vulnerable 
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris winter  1996  25 individuals  good  A1, B1i, C1, C2  Vulnerable 
Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina winter  1982  2,000-5,000 individuals  poor  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina breeding  1982  70 breeding pairs  medium  B2  Least Concern 
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala resident  1996  10 breeding pairs  good  A1, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C6  Endangered 
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala winter  1996  100-400 individuals  good  A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2  Endangered 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus winter  1996  5,000 individuals  medium  A4i, B1i, C2  Least Concern 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus resident  1992  2,000-5,000 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Black Stork Ciconia nigra winter  1996  30 individuals  B1i, C2  Least Concern 
White Stork Ciconia ciconia resident  1996  250 breeding pairs  medium  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus resident  1996  15 breeding pairs  good  C6  Least Concern 
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia resident  1996  1,100 breeding pairs  good  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax resident  1996  50 breeding pairs  medium  C6  Least Concern 
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides resident  1996  40 breeding pairs  medium  B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea resident  1996  300 breeding pairs  medium  B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Little Egret Egretta garzetta resident  1996  300-400 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti resident  1996  15 breeding pairs  good  A1, B2, C1, C2, C6  Vulnerable 
Black Kite Milvus migrans resident  1996  600 breeding pairs  medium  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Western Marsh-harrier Circus aeruginosus resident  1996  10 breeding pairs  poor  C6  Least Concern 
Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio resident  1996  400 breeding pairs  poor  B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Red-knobbed Coot Fulica cristata resident  1996  present  B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus resident  1996  8,000 breeding pairs  good  A4i, B1i, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta resident  1996  8,000 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, B3, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus resident  1990  550 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, B2, C3  Least Concern 
Common Redshank Tringa totanus resident  1996  1,000 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa winter  1990  20,000 individuals  poor  A4i, B1i, C3  Near Threatened 
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola resident  1990  2,000-4,000 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii winter  1996  200 individuals  medium  A1, C1  Near Threatened 
Slender-billed Gull Larus genei resident  1996  100 breeding pairs  medium  C2, C6  Least Concern 
Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica breeding  1996  1,000 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Little Tern Sterna albifrons resident  1996  25 breeding pairs  medium  C2  Least Concern 
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida resident  1996  3,000 breeding pairs  medium  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Black Tern Chlidonias niger resident  1996  7 breeding pairs  medium  C6  Least Concern 
A4iv Species group - soaring birds/cranes passage  1996  min 20,000 individuals  A4iv, B1iv, C5   
A4iii Species group - waterbirds passage  min 20,000 individuals  A4iii, C4   
A4iii Species group - waterbirds resident  20,000-49,999 breeding pairs  unknown  A4iii, C4   
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  100,000-499,999 individuals  unknown  A4iii, C4   

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
BAJO GUADALQUIVIR - ES6150019 Habitats Directive 3,896 protected area overlaps with site 3,048  
Brazo del Este Nature Area 1,336 protected area contained by site 1,336  
BRAZO DEL ESTE - ES0000272 Birds Directive 1,653 protected area contained by site 1,653  
CORREDOR ECOLOGICO DEL RIO GUADIAMAR - ES6180005 Habitats Directive 16,714 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
DEHESA DEL ESTERO Y MONTES DE MOGUER - ES6150012 Habitats Directive 2,919 protected area overlaps with site 797  
Doñana National Park (State Network) 50,720 protected area contained by site 50,720  
Doñana Natural Park 54,250 protected area contained by site 54,250  
Doñana UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve 77,260 protected area contained by site 77,260  
DOÑANA - ES0000024 Birds Directive 113,900 protected area contained by site 113,900  
Doñana National Park World Heritage Site 54,252 protected area overlaps with site 0  
DOÑANA NORTE Y OESTE - ES6150009 Habitats Directive 30,969 protected area overlaps with site 16,669  
Parque Nacional de Doñana Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 111,646 protected area contained by site 50,720  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Alluvial and very wet forest; Broadleaved evergreen woodland; Native coniferous woodland  20%
Shrubland Sclerophyllous scrub, garrigue and maquis  20%
Grassland Humid grasslands  -
Wetlands (inland) Rivers and streams; Standing brackish and salt water; Standing freshwater; Water fringe vegetation  -
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land; Forestry plantations  -
Coastline Lagoons; Salt marshes; Sand dunes & beaches  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 26%
fisheries/aquaculture -
forestry 26%
hunting 26%
military -
nature conservation and research 26%
tourism/recreation -
urban/industrial/transport -
water management -
other -

Protection status National Partial International Partial50,720 ha of IBA covered by National Park (Doñana, 50,720 ha). 54,250 ha of IBA covered by Natural Park (Doñana, 54,250 ha). 1,336 ha of IBA covered by Natural Landscape (Brazo del Este, 1,336 ha). 77,260 ha of IBA covered by Biosphere Reserve (Doñana, 77,260 ha). 77,260 ha of IBA covered by Ramsar Site (Doñana, 77,260 ha). 50,720 ha of IBA covered by Special Protection Area (Doñana, 50,720 ha). IBA overlaps with World Heritage Site (Doñana National Park).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Guadalquivir marshes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife