|Central coordinates||88o 58.35' East 22o 10.77' North|
|Altitude||0 - 5m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description The Sundarban is the largest delta covered with mangrove forests and vast saline mud flats in the world. It got the name from the mangrove plant locally known as Sundari Heritiera minor. The Sundarban stretches from the Hooghly (India) on the west to the Meghna (Bangladesh) in the east, both of which are major streams of the River Ganga. It spreads over the southern part of three districts, namely 24-Parganas (India), Khulna and Backarganj (Bangladesh). The boundary of Sundarban within West Bengal is demarcated by the Raimangal and Hooghly rivers in the East and West respectively, and the Bay of Bengal in the south. The northern limit cannot be clearly defined due to the progressive reclamation of land. The Sundarban covers an area of 9,63,000 ha, of which 2,58,500 ha is demarcated as the Sundarban Tiger Reserve and 1,33,000 as the National Park (core area). Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctuary (36,234 ha) lies within the buffer zone, to the north of Netidhopani and Chadkhali forest blocks. There are two small sanctuaries within the Biosphere Reserve: the 583 ha Halliday Island Wildlife Sanctuary, and the 3,885 ha Lothian Island Wildlife Sanctuary. Sunderban is the largest mangrove forest, with perhaps the largest tiger population in the world. It is a World Heritage Site and Biosphere Reserve, both in India and Bangladesh. It is also proposed as a Ramsar site. This World Heritage site is known for its rich biodiversity, especially fish, crustaceans, reptiles and birds. The total area of the IBA extends over 4,26,200 ha, of which 2,32,000 ha is under mangrove forest and the remaining is under water (Mukherjee 1975). As reported earlier, Heritiera minor, locally known as Sundari (Jain and Sastry 1983) is a predominant feature of the IBA. Champion (1936) classified the Sundarban as Moist Tropical Seral Forest, comprising beach forest and tidal forests. Characteristic species include Rhizophora spp., Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Ceriops sp., and Avicennia officinalis. Heritiera minor is scattered over areas of higher elevation, along with Sonneratia apetala, Excoecaria agallocha, and Phoenix paludosa. Low mangrove forest (3-6 m high) occurs between Matla and Muriganga, to the west of the National Park and Tiger Reserve. This area is devoid of fresh water because its rivers are cut off from the ramifications of the Hooghly in the north. The soft mud of the intertidal zone supports a dense forest, very similar in composition to salt-water Heritiera forest. Various trees and other plants were introduced, including some exotics.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Endangered|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Pallas's Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Masked Finfoot Heliopais personatus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Endangered|
|Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Sundarbans||National Park||133,010||is identical to site||133,010|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature Conservation|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Sujan Chatterjee, Kushal Mukherjee and the IBA team.
Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1987) Compact Edition of the Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Champion, H. G. (1936) A preliminary survey of the forest types of India and Burma. Indian Forest Records (New Series) 1: 1-286.
Grimmett, R., Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T. (1998) Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Christopher Helm (Publishers) Ltd., London, U.K.
Jain, S. K. and Sastry, A. R. K. (1983) Botany of some tiger habitats in India. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. Pp. 40-44.
Mukherjee, A. K. (1959) Pakhirala, Sajnakhali - an introduction to a bird sanctuary in the Sundarbans. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 30: 161-165.
Mukherjee, A. K. (1975) The Sundarban of India and its biota. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 72: 1-20.
Sanyal, P. (2002) Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve. In Traditional Ecological Knowledge for Managing Biosphere Reserves in South and Central Asia. Eds. Ramakrishan, P., Rai, R. K.
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