|Location||India, West Bengal|
|Central coordinates||88o 2.17' East 27o 8.65' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Altitude||2,600 - 3,650m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Singhalila National Park (SNP), situated at the northwestern border of Darjeeling district qualifies as an IBA because it harbours many endemic and threatened bird species. Climatically, this IBA is moist temperate, and parts of it lie within temperate to alpine zones. On the northern side, the Park is contiguous with the forests of Sikkim, while to the south, there are reserve forest corridors. If these are restored, the IBA would be connected to Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary near Darjeeling town. On the western side, there is contiguity with the forests in Nepal, though the areas are very small. Forest types include Wet Temperate Forests at altitudes 2,500-2,800 m which are dominated by Quercus sp. Moist Temperate Forests in the 2,850- 3,600 m range which include species such as Quercus pachyphylla, Betula utilis, Castanopsis tribuloides, Tsuga brunniona, Rhododendron sp. and an understorey of ringal bamboo; Subalpine Forests in the 3,000-3,650 m range include species like Abies densa, Betula utilis and Rhododendron sp. (S. Khaling, in litt. 2003). The forests of Singhalila are reported to be floristically very rich. Rhododendron (13 species), Magnolia, orchids, medicinal plants like Aconitum sp., Swertia chirata, Rheum sp., and Taxus baccata, are some of the important plant species found in the Park. Besides, the forests have a variety of mosses, lichens, mushrooms, tree ferns, climbers and other epiphytic plants (S. Khaling, in litt. 2003).
AVIFAUNA: This IBA is widely known for its bird diversity. Sarla Khaling claims to record 500 bird species from an area which is just over 100 sq. km, but list is not available. These include the Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra, Blackbacked Kaleej Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos, Blood Pheasant Ithaginis cruentus, Hill Partridge Arborophila torqueola, Redbreasted Hill Partridge A. mandelli.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Some important mammals of SNP are Leopard Panthera pardus, Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa, Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Chinese Pangolin Manis pentadactyla, Himalayan Mouse-Hare Ochotona roylei, rodents, bats. The rare Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is an important species of the National Park.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Chestnut-breasted Partridge Arborophila mandellii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola||breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Grey Sibia Heterophasia gracilis||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Beautiful Nuthatch Sitta formosa||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Rusty-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx hyperythra||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Near Threatened|
|2003||medium||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Singalila||National Park||7,860||is identical to site||7,860|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Sarala Khaling.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Singhalila National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2016
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