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Location India, West Bengal
Central coordinates 89o 44.50' East  26o 40.50' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 76,087 ha
Altitude 152 - 1,800m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Buxa Tiger Reserve is located in the northeastern corner of Jalpaiguri district. It is about 180 km from the city of Jalpaiguri and 7 km from the district headquarers at Alipurduar. The northern boundary of the Reserve lies along the international border with Bhutan. The eastern side of the Reserve forms the interstate boundary with Assam, demarcated by River Sankosh. The western and southern sides are bounded by tea gardens and agricultural fields. The core area is about 38,500 ha, which comprises 26,000 ha area of Buxa Sanctuary and 11,700 ha area of Buxa National Park. The buffer zone comprises 37,500 ha. Buxa Tiger Reserve is located at the meeting ground of three major biogeographical provinces, (Rodgers and Panwar 1988) namely the Lower Gangetic Plains, Central Himalayas and the Brahmaputra Valley. The Reserve has immense ecological and geomorphological significance. It consists of Himalayan formations of Darjeeling gneiss at an altitude of 1,800 m, the Great Boundary Fall (Godawans) lies just south of it, followed by the Siwalik Hills. Most of the area of the Reserve lies on the plains. Only the northern tracts are hilly. Many rivers and streams intersect the Reserve, the important ones are the Rydak, Jainty, Bala and Dima. Every year, flash floods cause widespread damage to forest vegetation during the monsoon. Buxa Tiger Reserve was brought under Project Tiger in 1983 and became India’s fifteenth Tiger Reserve. Buxa Tiger Reserve has a rich floral diversity. It is mainly Moist Tropical Forest and has been subdivided into eight Sub-types of Champion and Seth (1968): Sal Forest, Moist Mixed/Dry Mixed Forest, Wet Mixed Forest, Semi-evergreen Forest, Evergreen Forest, Hill Forest, Savannah Forest and Riverine Forest (Forest Department Working Plan). The most common tree species which is of great economic and ecological importance is Sal Shorea robusta. In areas adjoining rivers, Albizia lebbek, Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia catechu are the most common species, while on the hills are Morus laevigata, Ailanthus grandis, Zizyphus sp., Careya arborea and Butea monosperma. The Savannah forests is characterized by tropical trees such as Careya arborea, Dillenia pentagyna and Syzygium cumini.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: More than 227 bird species were reported from this IBA site by Allen et al. (1996). But, if we include the birds seen earlier by Inglis et al. (1918-1920), Stevens (1923-1925), Inglis (1952-69), Law (1953) and Sanyal (1995), the total comes to 359 species for the IBA. During a one-year BNHS study, 221 species were sighted by Prakash et al. (2001). The Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius, an Endangered species, was earlier seen by Inglis et al. (1918-1920) but not by Allen et al. (1996) or Prakash et al. (2001). Similarly, the following species were not sighted in recent surveys: Manipur Bush Quail Perdicula manipurensis, Pallas’s Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus, Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis, Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica, White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis, Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola, Jerdon’s Babbler Chrysomma altirostre and Finn’s Weaver Ploceus megarhynchus. A part of Buxa Tiger Reserve lies in the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA 130) where Stattersfield et al. (1998) have listed 21 restricted range species. Red-breasted Hill Partridge Arborophila mandelli, Yellow-vented Warbler Phylloscopus cantator, Hoary-throated Barwing Actinodura nipalensis and White-naped Yuhina Yuhina bakeri are found in the higher reaches of Buxa. Most parts of Buxa are plains and would come under the Assam Plains Endemic Bird Area (EBA 131) where three species are considered restricted range. Only the Black-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis flavirostris has been reported from this IBA, although earlier even the Manipur Bush Quail was found at the foot hills. As described by Allen et al. (1997), the type specimens were procured in Goalpara. Primrose has seen this bird not far from the Torsa and Shebbeare also believes he has seen it. There is a ragged skin in the British Museum said to have been procured in the Bhutan Duars. This is evidently the bird mentioned by Thornhill as shot by him at Alipurduar (Inglis et al. 1918-1920). The site is situated in the transition zone between Biome-8 and Biome-12 therefore, bird species representing Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest and Indo-Gangetic Plains are sighted in the Reserve. Owing to wide distribution of bird species of Biome-11 (Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone), many birds from this biome are also found in this IBA site. In winter, some species from Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane Alpine and Tibetan) and Biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forests) are also reported from this IBA site. Altogether, this site has avian elements from five biomes. Prakash et al. (2001) recorded 32 species of raptors, including the two Critically Endangered Gyps vultures. Allen et al. (1996) report five species of hornbills (Indian Grey Ocycercos birostris, Oriental Pied Anthracoceros albirostris, Great Pied Buceros bicornis, Rufous-necked Aceros nipalensis and Wreathed Aceros undulatus). Some species of conservation interest seen by them are: Chestnutbreasted Partridge Arborophila mandellii (5 individuals), Rufousnecked Hornbill (one pair), Beautiful Nuthatch Sitta formosa (2-4 birds), Long-billed Wren-Babbler Rimator malacoptilus (one pair), Black-headed Shrike-Babbler Pteruthius rufiventer (small numbers), Yellow-throated Fulvetta Alcippe cinerea (small party), White-naped Yuhina Yuhina bakeri (small flocks) and Greater Rufous-headed Parrotbill Paradoxornis ruficeps (flocks of >30). Thirteen species belonging to the Vulnerable category and 11 belonging to the Near Threatened category are found in Buxa, some with significant numbers.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: As the name indicates, Buxa is famous for its population of Tiger Panthera tigris. According to official records there were 32 Tigers in 1997 in the Reserve (Jain 2001). Buxa is an essential forest corridor for Tigers and Asian Elephants Elephas maximus moving between the forests of northwest Assam and southern Bhutan (Rodgers and Panwar 1988). Other larger vertebrates are Leopard Panthera pardus, Gaur Bos frontalis, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Hog Deer Axis porcinus and Wild Boar Sus scrofa.

According to Jain (2001), there are 73 species of mammals, 76 species of reptiles and 5 species of amphibians. This government document also claims 390 species of birds from this Reserve.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Manipur Bush-quail Perdicula manipurensis resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Endangered 
Chestnut-breasted Partridge Arborophila mandellii resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola passage  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis breeding  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Grey-crowned Prinia Prinia cinereocapilla resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Bristled Grassbird Chaetornis striata resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Yellow-vented Warbler Phylloscopus cantator resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 
Jerdon's Babbler Chrysomma altirostre resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Hoary-throated Barwing Actinodura nipalensis resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 
White-naped Yuhina Yuhina bakeri resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 
Black-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis flavirostris resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Beautiful Nuthatch Sitta formosa resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Yellow Weaver Ploceus megarhynchus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2003 high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Buxa Sanctuary 36,899 protected area contained by site 36,899  
Buxa (extension) Sanctuary 4,548 protected area contained by site 4,548  
Buxa NP National Park 11,710 protected area contained by site 11,710  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Grassland   -
Wetlands (inland)   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and education

Acknowledgements Key contributor: IBA Team.


Allen, D., Anderton, J. and Kazmierczak, K. (1997) Report on an ornithological visit to Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India, 17 February to 6 March, 1992. Forktail 12: 31-48.

Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A revised survey of forest types of India. Govt. of India Press, Delhi.

Inglis, C. M. (1952-1959) Birds of the Duars. J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc. 25: 71-76, 121-127, 164-169, 196-200; 26: 1-8, 47-56, 93-99, 149- 156; 27: 9-12, 55-58, 83-95, 129-155; 28: 18-51, 102-115, 149-161; 29: 16-25, 88-94, 150-160; 30: 35-42, 81-97, 166-181; 31: 14-32, 49-60; 32: 1-9, 69-73; 33: 121-125, 181-184; 34: 1-4, 85-87; 35: 1- 5, 49-63.

Inglis, C. M., Travers, W. L. and O’Donel, H. V. (1918-1920) A tentative list of the vertebrates of the Jalpaiguri District, Bengal. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 988-999; 27: 151-162.

Jain, P. (2001) Buxa Tiger Reserve. Project Tiger Status Report. Project Tiger, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi. Pp. 22-28.

Law. S. C. (1953) Occurrence of the Smew [Mergellus albellus (Linn.)] in West Bengal. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 51: 508-509.

Prakash, V., Sivakumar, S. and Verghese, J. (2001) Avifauna as Indicators of Habitat Quality in Buxa Tiger Reserve. Quarterly Report IV. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.

Rodgers, W. A. and Panwar, H. S. (1988) Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network in India. 2 vols. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.

Sanyal, P. (1995) Rare crane of India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 91: 453.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stevens, H. (1923-1925) Notes on the birds of the Sikkim Himalayas. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 29: 503-518, 723-740, 1007-1030; 30: 54-71, 352-379, 664-685, 872-893.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Buxa Tiger Reserve (National Park). Downloaded from on 25/10/2016

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