|Location||India, Uttar Pradesh|
|Central coordinates||79o 0.00' East 27o 5.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i, A4iii|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Saman Bird Sanctuary is located near village Saman in Karhal tehsil of Mainpuri district. It was declared as a bird sanctuary in 1990 by a gazette notification. The sanctuary is a natural rainfed oxbow lake of approximately 525 ha, that dries up in summer. The wetland attracts large numbers of migratory birds in winter, while resident bird fauna are seen all the year round. The site is important for large wintering waterfowl congregations. There are eight villages inside the Sanctuary and several along the periphery. Nelumbo is found on the entire waterbody, along with a highly diverse group of hydrophytic vegetation which includes Cyperus, Phragmites and Typha. There has been no study of the flora in this Sanctuary. About 100 years ago, Saman jheel, along with Lakh-Bahosi (an IBA) in nearby Farrukhabad district, and other jheels formed an important habitat for the Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus. The great ornithologist A. O. Hume saw Siberian Cranes in many jheels in Etawah and Mainpuri districts between 1858 and 1867. Saman could have been one of the important sites, although Hume did not mention it by name. The name ‘Tuman’ jheels (26°46’ N and 79°02’ E) is referred by Wilkinshaw, where W. E. Brooks shot three Siberian Cranes in February 1871. It appears that Tuman is none other than Saman jheel (Rahmani and Arora, 1992).
AVIFAUNA: Saman jheel is famous for congregation of waterbirds during winter. Three to five breeding pairs of Sarus crane Grus antigone are resident in the Sanctuary. In January 2001, waterfowl census revealed more than 1500 Common Teal Anas crecca, 6,000 to 10,000 Northern Pintail Anas acuta, 30,000 Lesser Whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica, and 200 Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus (V. P. Singh, pers. comm. 2003). Many of these species occur in far greater numbers than their 1% biogeographic population threshold determined by Wetlands International (2002), so the site fits A4i criteria also. A heronry on a large Ficus tree has around 150 nests of Blackcrowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax, with several nests of egrets Egretta spp. and Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii. A breeding pair of Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus and one or two Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga are regularly found in the Sanctuary.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Being a wetland and entirely surrounded by anthropogenically modified countryside, there are no large mammals of conservation concern in the area.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Northern Pintail Anas acuta||-||2004||present||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Lesser Whistling-duck Dendrocygna javanica||-||2004||present||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Common Teal Anas crecca||-||2004||present||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus||-||2004||present||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Sarus Crane Antigone antigone||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||unknown||2004||20,000 individuals||unknown||A4iii|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Natural system modifications||dams & water management/use - abstraction of ground water (agricultural use)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - herbicides and pesticides||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Residential and commercial development||housing and urban areas||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||high|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Saman||Sanctuary||525||is identical to site||525|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Forest Department|
|Notes: Private lands and Village Panchayat|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Asad R. Rahmani and K. S. Gopi Sunder.
Rahmani, A. R. and Arora, V. M. (1992) Wetlands of Uttar Pradesh – Part 2. Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 32 (5&6): 5-6.
Wetlands International (2002) Waterbird Population Estimates – Third Edition. Wetlands International Global Series No. 12. Wageningen, The Netherlands.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Saman Bird Sanctuary. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2016
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