|Location||India, Tamil Nadu|
|Central coordinates||78o 0.57' East 9o 33.50' North|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description The Kullur Sandai Reservoir is located in Aruppukottai Taluka of Virudunagar district, about 8 km along the Palavanatham road. It is about 80 km southwest of Madurai. The climate of this region is semiarid tropical monsoon type, with high temperature and low humidity. It receives scanty rainfall, with an annual average of just 800 mm. The reservoir receives most of the rainfall during the northeast monsoon from October to December. It also receives inflows from the Khowsika river, which originates in the Western Ghats. The Vallikulam stream also flows into the Reservoir during the monsoon. Kullur Sandai Reservoir has a waterspread of 1,361 ha. The Public Works and the Fisheries Departments protect the dam and undertake measures for storing water and also for fish culture. Apart from the Kullur Sandai Reservoir, there are other irrigation reservoirs in the area (Anaikootam, Vembakottai and Golwarpatti). Pelicans and other birds move between these various waterbodies according to the availability of water. The dam and its environs are rich in aquatic vegetation, with tall and medium Borassus flabellifer trees along the banks. The fringes have been invaded by Ipomoea carnea. The reservoir is fortunately free of water hyacinth.
AVIFAUNA: Kullur Sandai Reservoir qualifies IBA criteria A1, as it holds a significant number of globally threatened Spot-billed Pelicans Pelecanus philippensis. During the Asian Waterfowl Census in January 1987, at least 32 Spot-billed Pelicans were recorded (Johnson et al. 1993). In recent years, the number of Pelicans appears to have increased, as 1,670 were recorded during the pelican survey in September 2002 (Manakadan and Kannan 2003). The 1% biogeographic population threshold of this species is 40 (Wetlands International 2002). This IBA also harbours several other species during winter, such as the Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, Common Coot Fulica atra, Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Gadwall Anas strepera, Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha, Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger, Indian Shag Phalacrocorax fuscicollis, Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Little Egret Egretta garzetta, and Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. The total population of waterbirds sometimes exceeds 10,000.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: The Fisheries Department has almost eliminated the native fish community by the introduction of commercial species of carps such as Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cerrhina mrigala, Channa spp.
as well as catfish. The water of the dam is rich in phytoplankton, zooplankton, and submerged vegetation. Because of the rich growth of plankton and heavy stock of fish, pelicans and other waterfowl congregate. This brings them in direct conflict with the Fisheries Department.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Near Threatened|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Biological resource use||fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: large scale||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control||likely in short term (within 4 years)||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Pollution||domestic & urban waste water - run-off||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Pollution||industrial & military effluents - type unknown/unrecorded||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - aquatic||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Domestic use; Irrigation; Water management|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: V. Kannan.
Johnson, J. M., Perennou, C. and Crivelli, A. (1993) Towards the extinction of the Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis), 92-94. In: Wetland and Waterfowl Conservation in south and west Asia (Eds. M. Moser and J. Van Versem). IWRB Spec. Publ. No. 25: AWB Publ. No. 85.
Manakadan, R. and Kannan, V. (2003) A study of Spot-billed Pelicans Pelecanus philippensis with special reference to its conservation. Final Report, Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.
Wetlands International (2002) Waterbird Population Estimates, Third Edition. Wetlands International Global series No.12. Wageningen, the Netherlands.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Kullur Sandai Reservoir. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/05/2016
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