|Central coordinates||76o 52.00' East 11o 25.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Longwood is located in the Nilgiris district, at the extreme northwest end of Tamil Nadu on the interstate boundaries with Karnataka and Kerala. In this site, the only major pocket of natural Shola remaining is in the immediate vicinity of Kothagiri village. Though relatively small, it is highly important to the whole Kothagiri region as it harbours a variety of endemic flora and fauna. It is also one of the key areas for the conservation of the Rufousbreasted or Nilgiri Laughingthrush Garrulax cachinnans, Whitebellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major and the Nilgiri Wood- Pigeon Columba elphinstonii, listed as Endangered or Vulnerable by BirdLife International (2001). Though it has a history of encroachments and habitat loss, this IBA has ultimately been given much needed protection, with the active involvement of an enlightened group of local residents, named Longwood Shola Watchdog Committee. Like the other sholas of the Nilgiris, Longwood is also classified as Southern Montane Wet Temperate Forest by Champion and Seth (1968). Tall trees of up to 20 m are still seen in this shola. Species comprising such sholas are evergreen and include Actinodaphne bourneae, Ilex denticulata, Litsea wightiana, Michelia nilagirica, Microtropis ramiflora, Pithecellobium subcoriaceum, Symplocos pendula and Syzygium arnottianum, Eurya nitida, Photina notoniana, Ternstroemia japonica, Berberis tinctoria, Heydotis stylosa, Leucas suffruticosa and Smithia blanda. Many species of Himalayan affinity are found here, like in the whole of the Nilgiris. Tea plantations surround this site.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Nilgiri Wood-pigeon Columba elphinstonii||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Grey-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus priocephalus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Black-chinned Laughingthrush Strophocincla cachinnans||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1, A2||Endangered|
|Nilgiri Blue Robin Myiomela major||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1, A2||Endangered|
|Black-and-rufous Flycatcher Ficedula nigrorufa||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Nilgiri Flycatcher Eumyias albicaudatus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|White-bellied Blue-flycatcher Cyornis pallipes||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Water catchment|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: The IBA Team.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K. Unpublished.
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A revised survey of forest types of India. Govt. of India Press, Delhi.
Zarri, A. A., Rahmani, A. R. and Senthilmurugan, S. (2002) Ecology of Shola and Alpine Grasslands. Annual report. 2 Part 1. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2013) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Longwood Shola - Kothagiri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2013
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