|Location||India, Tamil Nadu|
|Central coordinates||76o 37.12' East 11o 31.02' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Governor’s Shola is located in the northwestern corner of Tamil Nadu, on the interstate boundaries with Karnataka and Kerala. It lies c. 8 km from Ooty town along the Ooty-Porthimunth road. It is a part of the Wenlock Down’s Range in the Nilgiris South Forest Division. This site was known for its excellent natural forest and grassland till the first half of the 20th century. Today, much of what existed in the mid 20th century is converted into exotic plantations, as in many other sites in the Nilgiris. This site also experienced significant habitat loss over the years because of anthropogenic pressures from the surrounding villages and conversion of land to agricultural use. Nevertheless, this small forest area still harbours a number of bird species of conservation interest. Governor’s Shola is a medium size patch of shola amid a sea of plantations and cultivation. Species comprising such shola include Actinodaphne bourneae, Ilex denticulata, Litsea wightiana, Michelia nilagirica, Microtropis ramiflora, Pithecolobium subcoriaceum, Symplocos pendula and Syzygium arnottanum, Eurya nitida, Photina notoniana, Ternstroemia japonica, Berberis tinctoria, Heydotis stylosa, Leucas suffruticosa and Smithia blanda. Besides, several genera of Himalayan elements such as Rhododendron, Hypericum, Rubus, Lonicera, Gaultheria and Pittosporum are also common.
AVIFAUNA: Governor’s Shola holds a bird community with small populations of some of the globally threatened and restricted range species, besides many common birds also. A checklist of birds recorded in the area around this site is given in Zarri et al. (2002). Governor’s Shola is located in the Western Ghats Endemic Bird Areas (EBA), where Stattersfield et al. (1998) have listed 16 restricted range species. We could record only five such species from this site; most of them are associated with Wet Temperate sholas and Subtropical Broadleaf Hill Forest, which proves that some natural vegetation is still surviving. This site is selected as an IBA based on the presence of globally threatened and restricted range species, A1 and A2 criteria respectively, of BirdLife International (2001).
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Most of the mammals found in the sholas of the Nilgiris are also found here. Noteworthy species are Nilgiri Langur Trachypithecus johni, Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard P. pardus, Wild Dog Cuon alpinus, Sambar Cervus unicolor and Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Nilgiri Woodpigeon Columba elphinstonii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Garrulax cachinnans||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Not Recognised|
|Brachypteryx major||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Not Recognised|
|Black-and-rufous Flycatcher Ficedula nigrorufa||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Least Concern|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - herbicides and pesticides||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Forestry; Plantation|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Ashfaq Ahmed Zarri.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Zarri, A. A., Rahmani, A. R., and Senthilmurugan, S. (2002) Ecology of Shola and Alpine Grasslands. Annual report. 2 Part 1. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2015) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Governor's Shola (Nilgiri). Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2015
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