|Location||India, Tamil Nadu|
|Central coordinates||76o 41.22' East 11o 23.63' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Cairnhill is located in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu in the Western Ghats. It is a part of the South Range of Nilgiris South Forest Division, located 4-5 km from Ooty town. The site is surrounded by agricultural fields and settlements. It is one of the oldest converted forests in the Upper Nilgiris Plateau. A few small patches of sholas still thrive amid the old plantations of Pinus sp., Cyperus sp. and Wattle Acacia mearnsii. Despite its small size, it is a promising area for the conservation of endangered and Western Ghats endemic bird species. A very small patch of shola is left in Cairnhill that supports bird species of conservation interest. Plantations, mainly Wattle and Cyperus form the principal habitat type in Cairnhill, replacing a significantly higher proportion of the indigenous vegetation. Over a hundred years old, the Cyperus plantation stands tall, surrounded on all sides by Wattle, at the top of the hill. Owing to the creation of bare patches in the forest, shrub vegetation characteristic of forest edges now dominates this IBA. Rhododendron nilagiricum, endemic to the Nilgiris, is very common. The grassland in and around this site has disappeared during the 20th century.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Nilgiri Woodpigeon Columba elphinstonii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Black-chinned Laughingthrush Strophocincla cachinnans||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Endangered|
|Nilgiri Blue Robin Myiomela major||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Endangered|
|Black-and-rufous Flycatcher Ficedula nigrorufa||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Nilgiri Flycatcher Eumyias albicaudatus||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima||-||2004||present||-||A2||Least Concern|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Forestry; Plantation|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Ashfaq Ahmed Zarri.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Zarri, A. A., Rahmani, A. R., and Senthilmurugan, S. (2002) Ecology of Shola and Alpine Grasslands. Annual report. 2 Part 1. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Cairn hill Reserve Forest (Nilgiri). Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2014
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