|Location||India, Tamil Nadu|
|Central coordinates||76o 31.68' East 11o 12.87' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Bison Swamp is located at the southwest end of Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, very close to the Kerala border. It is a part of the Korakundah Range of the Nilgiris South Forest Division. Francis (1908) in the Nilgiri Gazetteer describes the origin of its name, from the congregation of Indian Bison or Gaur Bos frontalis, which the early settlers often hunted. During the last century, Bison Swamp experienced extensive habitat changes affecting its flora and fauna. It was extensively planted with exotics such as Eucalyptus globulus and Wattle Acacia mearnsii. A very small proportion of natural shola and grassland remains. Despite habitat loss and degradation, this IBA is still important for the conservation of endemic and threatened birds such as the Nilgiri Laughingthrush Garrulax cachinnans. Natural vegetation of this site can be classified into two major types namely, Southern Montane Wet Temperate Forest (shola), and grasslands. Both have been converted to plantations. Patches of grasslands, between plantation and shola patches, remain in Bison Swamp. Plantations of Wattle and Eucalyptus now occupy a major portion of Bison Swamp. Wattle forms impenetrable thickets, severely affecting the movement of larger mammals. It regenerates and spreads quickly, and may be termed invasive.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Nilgiri Wood-pigeon Columba elphinstonii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Rufous-throated Wren-babbler Spelaeornis caudatus||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Black-chinned Laughingthrush Strophocincla cachinnans||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Nilgiri Blue Robin Myiomela major||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Endangered|
|Black-and-rufous Flycatcher Ficedula nigrorufa||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Nilgiri Flycatcher Eumyias albicaudatus||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima||-||2004||present||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Vulnerable|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Forestry operations; Plantation|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Ashfaq Ahmed Zarri.
Zarri, A. A., Rahmani, A. R., and Senthilmurugan, S. (2002) Ecology of Shola and Alpine Grasslands. Annual report. 2 Part 1. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Bison Swamp (Nilgiri). Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014
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