|Central coordinates||88o 46.70' East 27o 20.47' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||1,300 - 4,000m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description The Pangolakha Range, extending below the Chola Range, separates Sikkim from Bhutan. Hathichirey (the place where elephants can penetrate) forms the tri-junction between Bhutan, Sikkim and West Bengal where further down the forest continues as the Neora Valley National Park (an IBA in West Bengal). The Sanctuary has typical alpine-temperate-subtropical vegetation with high altitude lakes around Jelep La. Rhododendron, Silver Fir, Juniper forest and associated ground flora, moss-filled oak forests with dense bamboo thickets form ideal habitat for the Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, the State Animal.
AVIFAUNA: The mountain passes of Natu La and Jelep La (La = Pass) form the routes for migratory waterbirds many of which stop over at the various wetlands in the area, especially Bedang Tso Lake. The Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus (locally called as Feydong) used to be found here (Chezung Lachungpa pers. comm. 1996), hence the name Bedang Tso. Sometimes there is mass migration of birds of prey such as Red Kites Milvus milvus and unidentified eagles (U. Lachungpa pers. comm. 2003). The Sherathang marshes are one area where the Brahminy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea breeds. Some birds of this complex are Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola and Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola, a globally threatened species (BirdLife International 2001) occasionally seen on the banks of the Bedang Tso. Hill Pigeons Columba rupestris are seen on smoking chimneys of local houses in snowy winters. The Snow Pigeon Columba leuconota, Snow Partridge Lerwa lerwa, Himalayan Monal and Gold-naped Black Finch Pyrrhoplectes epauletta are common on the alpine slopes. The Pallas’s Fish-Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus was once seen in the forest patch over the Pangolakha range in 1994. Large Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus were sighted at Bedang Tso in 1992 (U. Lachungpa pers. comm. 2003). The Tibetan Eared Pheasant Crossoptilon harmani, a Near Threatened species, has been reported from Kupup (near Bedang Tso) below the Jelep La (U. Lachungpa pers. comm. 2003). This area falls under Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary and is adjacent to the Chumbi Valley of Tibet. This pheasant is one of the two endemic birds in Southern Tibet (EBA-133). It is reported from the edge of mixed Broadleaf Coniferous forest; Rhododendron, Juniper and deciduous scrub and grassland (Stattersfield et al. 1998). Another Near Threatened species found in this IBA is the Giant Babax Babax waddelli. Due to great altitudinal variation from 1300 m to above 4,000 m, three biomes occur in this IBA: Biome-5 Eurasian High Montane (Alpine and Tibetan), from above 3,600 m; Biome-7 Sino- Himalayan Temperate Forest, between 1,800 m and 3,600 m; and, Biome-8 Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest, occurring between c. 1,000 m to 2,000 m (BirdLife International, undated). In Biome-5, 48 species are found, out of which 11 are found at this site. Similarly, 112 species are representative of Biome-7 and in this site are found 14 species (U. Lachungpa pers. comm. 2003). At lower altitude, in Biome-8, only two species out of 95 are reported from this IBA. It is likely that with more detailed surveys, more biome restricted species would be found.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Fauna includes Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard Panthera pardus,Takin Budorcas taxicolor, Red Fox Vulpes vulpes, Hill Fox V. montana, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Serow N. sumatraensis, Musk Deer Moschus chrysogaster, Yellow- Throated Marten Martes flavigula, Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Mouse-Hare Ochotona roylei and Himalayan Weasel Mustela sibirica. There are chances of occurrence of Himalayan Salamander Tylototriton verrucosus in addition to other herpetofauna. Lower altitude waterbodies are home to several hillstream fish while in the upper reaches, the exotic Brown Trout has been introduced in the alpine lakes.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Chestnut-breasted Partridge Arborophila mandellii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Vulnerable|
|Tibetan Eared-pheasant Crossoptilon harmani||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Pallas's Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola||breeding||2004||present||-||A1, A3||Vulnerable|
|Ward's Trogon Harpactes wardi||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A3||Vulnerable|
|Grey-crowned Prinia Prinia cinereocapilla||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Broad-billed Warbler Tickellia hodgsoni||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Slender-billed Babbler Turdoides longirostris||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Giant Babax Babax waddelli||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Hoary-throated Barwing Actinodura nipalensis||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Black-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis flavirostris||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|2003||low||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control||likely in short term (within 4 years)||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||war, civil unrest and military exercises||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Pollution||domestic & urban waste water - type unknown/unrecorded||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Pollution||garbage & solid waste||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Pangolakha||Sanctuary||0||is identical to site||12,400|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Water /Watershed Management|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Usha Lachungpa.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Ganguli-Lachungpa, U. (1998) On the occurrence of the Tiger Panthera tigris in Sikkim. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 95 (1): 109.
Ganguli-Lachungpa, U. (2000) Takin Budorcas taxicolor at Menla Reserve Forest (3050m), East Sikkim: a westward range extension and observations of unusual behaviour. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 97 (2): 272-274.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World – Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary - Zuluk - Bedang Tso - Natula Complex. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/09/2016
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