|Central coordinates||88o 23.58' East 27o 18.83' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||2,100 - 3,300m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary is located on the Maenam-Tendong ridge which runs north-south bisecting Sikkim longitudinally and is drained by the Tista river to the East and Rangit river in the West. The altitudinal gradient of 2,100 m - 3,300 m provides for a range of microclimates and floral diversity from subtropical forests to stabilized scree slopes. These diverse forest types in turn shelter a wide range of faunal elements. The Sanctuary has tremendous watershed value, being the only source of perennial water on this ridge. The South District headquarters, Namchi, situated 30 km due south totally depends on the water piped from the Burmelly stream originating from within the Sanctuary precincts. The adjoining town of Ravangla also depends on the Sanctuary for potable water. “Maenam-la” translates to the “Treasury of Medicines”, being a rich trove of medicinal plants. There is also a historical Buddhist monastery, the Maenam Gompa, at the top of the ridge. Interestingly, despite the disturbance from nearby urban areas, Maenam harbours a rich bird diversity (Anon. 2001). The entire stretch of forest along Temi-Tarku-Damthang-Tendong- Bhanjyang- Ravangla-Maenam and further north linking with Karjee-Labdang forests of the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve is virtually contiguous, planted in a few places with the exotic Cryptomeria japonica trees. Tea plantations of the State Government occupy a part of Temi.
AVIFAUNA: There are several villages fringing this IBA due to which the habitat is open in several places. This open habitat coupled with patches of dense forest provides ideal bird habitats in the IBA. The Hodgson’s Frogmouth Batrachostomus hodgsoni was observed in Pabong area (Ganguli-Lachungpa and Lucksom 1998). The site lies in the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA- 130), in which Stattersfield et al. (1998) have listed 21 restricted range species. Eight of these have been seen here (U. Lachungpa pers. comm. 2003). This mid-altitude IBA falls mainly in Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest (Biome-7). BirdLife International (undated) has listed 112 species in this biome, of which 53 are found here. The higher reaches of this IBA, above 3,000 m show some birds of Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane - Alpine and Tibetan) where 48 species are listed and seven are seen in this site. At lower reaches, Biome-7 merges with Biome-8 (Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest) where 95 species are listed. Almost half of them (42 species) have been found here. Some areas of this IBA, especially in the valleys also show some faunal elements of Biome-9 (Indo-Chinese Tropical Moist Forest). Four species of this biome are also found here. They are Grey Peacock Pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum (unconfirmed), Pale-headed Woodpecker Gecinulus grantia, Greater Necklaced Laughingthrush Garrulax pectoralis and Sultan Tit Melanochlora sultanea. The list of other biome species is too long to be mentioned here. This IBA has habitat contiguity with the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (U. Lachungpa pers. comm. 2003), therefore, both these IBAs together form a large habitat for the bird life of this small state. The site fulfils three IBA criteria: A1 (Threatened Species), A2 (EBA-130: Eastern Himalayas) and A3 (Biomerestricted species).
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Fauna includes Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Leopard Panthera pardus, Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Mouse Hare Ochotona roylei, Particoloured Flying Squirrel Hylopetes alboniger, Hoary-bellied Himalayan Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus, Orange-bellied Himalayan Squirrel Dremomys lokriah, Yellow-throated Marten Martes flavigula, Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis and Himalayan Crestless Porcupine Hystrix brachyura.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Chestnut-breasted Partridge Arborophila mandellii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Vulnerable|
|Blyth's Tragopan Tragopan blythii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Vulnerable|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A3||Vulnerable|
|Broad-billed Warbler Tickellia hodgsoni||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Rufous-throated Wren-babbler Spelaeornis caudatus||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|Sphenocichla humei||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Not Recognised|
|Hoary-throated Barwing Actinodura nipalensis||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|White-naped Yuhina Yuhina bakeri||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Beautiful Nuthatch Sitta formosa||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A3||Vulnerable|
|Rusty-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx hyperythra||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|2003||medium||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Climate change and severe weather||storms and floods||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||problematic native species/diseases - named species||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Natural system modifications||other ecosystem modifications||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Pollution||garbage & solid waste||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Maenam||Sanctuary||3,534||is identical to site||3,534|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
|Notes: Watershed management|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Usha Lachungpa and Sandeep Tambe.
Ahmed, A. and Ganguli-Lachungpa, U. (1996) Report on Biodiversity Survey of Maenam WLS. Unpublished report to Oriental Bird Club, U.K.
Anonymous (2001) Management Plan of Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary (unpublished). State Forest Department, Government of Sikkim, Deorali, Gangtok.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
Ganguli-Lachungpa, U. and Lucksom S. Z. (1998) Sighting of Hodgson’s Frogmouth Batrachostomus hodgsoni hodgsoni (G.R. Gray) from Sikkim. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 95 (3): 506.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
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