|Central coordinates||73o 49.00' East 24o 35.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description The lake complex of Udaipur City consists of two important lakes namely Pichola (960 ha) and Fatehsagar (2,070 ha), interconnected by Rangsagar and Swaroopsagar lakes. The complex of lakes is situated in the western part of Udaipur City. The former rulers of Mewar had built these lakes. Fatehsagar has four islands within it. One has been converted into a garden, Nehru Park; on an other smaller island, a Solar Observatory has been erected; the third, a rocky outcrop, has been converted into a fountain; and a fourth island is near the northwestern shore. Pichola has two important island masses on which the Lake Palace, Hotel and Jag Mandir, are located. The main source of water for Pichola Lake is Sisarma river. From Pichola, water is diverted to interconnecting waterbodies, which in turn supply the water to Fatehsagar. Fatehsagar also receives water from a small canal, Madar-ka-Nallah, connected to River Berach. Before India’s Independence, the water from Fatehsagar was hardly used for any purpose and the lake remained more or less full throughout the year. Presently, these lakes serve as the important water supply bodies for the domestic purposes of the city. Due to shortage of rainfall during the last ten years (from 1992); these lakes are getting water from Jaisamand. Nevertheless, the water levels of both the lakes are decreasing every year. This is affecting the number of migratory birds visiting the lakes. Despite the fact that these lakes are within the growing Udaipur City, they attract a large number of waterfowl. Up to 10,000 could be seen in these lake complexes. The macrophytic community is composed of 14 species at Pichola Lake and 16 species at Fatehsagar Lake (Sankhla et al. 1996). Eichhornia dominates Pichola and Nelumbo and Nymphoides alternatively dominate Fatehsagar in the floating zone community, whereas Hydrilla dominates in the submerged zone community in both the lakes, throughout the year. The emergent zone community is dominated by Paspalidium geminatum and Elaeocharis palustris.
AVIFAUNA: More than 85 bird species (Tehsin 1989; Sharma 2002) have been reported from this site and its environs. These include species of Biome-11 (Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone). Large congregations of Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha, Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Black-winged Stilts Himantopus himantopus and Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo can be seen during the peak of winter. Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis is a regular sighting from this Lake complex and more than 150 were counted in the winter of 2002 (R. Tehsin pers. comm. 2003). The visits of Sarus Crane Grus antigone (1-2 pairs) during winters is frequently observed in the surrounding field areas of the Lake Pichola whereas Pied Tit Parus nuchalis is most commonly sighted from the forest area in the catchment of the Lake Fatehsagar (Jamunia Ki Nal) (R. Tehsin pers. comm. 2003).
OTHER KEY FAUNA: The environs of the lakes do not harbour any major mammalian and reptilian fauna of conservation concern.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A4i||Near Threatened|
|Sarus Crane Antigone antigone||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|White-naped Tit Parus nuchalis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||very high|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - type unknown/unrecorded||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||very high|
|Artificial - aquatic||0||0||moderate (70-90%)||moderate (70-90%)||unfavourable|
|Little/none of site covered (<10%)||No management planning has taken place||Very little or no conservation action taking place||negligible|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - aquatic||-|
|Artificial - terrestrial||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
|Notes: Water management|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Raza Tehsin, Satish K. Sharma, NEED Organization (Udaipur).
Sankhla, S. K., Paliwal, P. P., Billore, D. K. and Jain, S. L. (1996): Structure and production dynamics of macrophytic and moist bank vegetation of Udaipur wetlands. In: Contributions to the Environmental Sciences (Vyas, L. N., Garg, R. K. & Purohit, S. D. Eds:), Himanshu Publications, Udaipur-New Delhi. Pp. 71.
Sharma, S. K. (2002): Preliminary Biodiversity Survey of Protected Areas of Southern Rajasthan. Unpbl. Pp. 1-23.
Tehsin, R. (1989). Faunal history of Fatehsagar Lake. In: Wetland Conservation (Vyas, L. N. and Garg, R. K. eds.), Environment Community Centre, Udaipur. Pp. 109-117.
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