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Location India, Rajasthan
Central coordinates 73o 49.00' East  24o 35.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A4i
Area 3,030 ha
Altitude 0
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description The lake complex of Udaipur City consists of two important lakes namely Pichola (960 ha) and Fatehsagar (2,070 ha), interconnected by Rangsagar and Swaroopsagar lakes. The complex of lakes is situated in the western part of Udaipur City. The former rulers of Mewar had built these lakes. Fatehsagar has four islands within it. One has been converted into a garden, Nehru Park; on an other smaller island, a Solar Observatory has been erected; the third, a rocky outcrop, has been converted into a fountain; and a fourth island is near the northwestern shore. Pichola has two important island masses on which the Lake Palace, Hotel and Jag Mandir, are located. The main source of water for Pichola Lake is Sisarma river. From Pichola, water is diverted to interconnecting waterbodies, which in turn supply the water to Fatehsagar. Fatehsagar also receives water from a small canal, Madar-ka-Nallah, connected to River Berach. Before India’s Independence, the water from Fatehsagar was hardly used for any purpose and the lake remained more or less full throughout the year. Presently, these lakes serve as the important water supply bodies for the domestic purposes of the city. Due to shortage of rainfall during the last ten years (from 1992); these lakes are getting water from Jaisamand. Nevertheless, the water levels of both the lakes are decreasing every year. This is affecting the number of migratory birds visiting the lakes. Despite the fact that these lakes are within the growing Udaipur City, they attract a large number of waterfowl. Up to 10,000 could be seen in these lake complexes. The macrophytic community is composed of 14 species at Pichola Lake and 16 species at Fatehsagar Lake (Sankhla et al. 1996). Eichhornia dominates Pichola and Nelumbo and Nymphoides alternatively dominate Fatehsagar in the floating zone community, whereas Hydrilla dominates in the submerged zone community in both the lakes, throughout the year. The emergent zone community is dominated by Paspalidium geminatum and Elaeocharis palustris.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: More than 85 bird species (Tehsin 1989; Sharma 2002) have been reported from this site and its environs. These include species of Biome-11 (Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone). Large congregations of Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha, Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Black-winged Stilts Himantopus himantopus and Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo can be seen during the peak of winter. Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis is a regular sighting from this Lake complex and more than 150 were counted in the winter of 2002 (R. Tehsin pers. comm. 2003). The visits of Sarus Crane Grus antigone (1-2 pairs) during winters is frequently observed in the surrounding field areas of the Lake Pichola whereas Pied Tit Parus nuchalis is most commonly sighted from the forest area in the catchment of the Lake Fatehsagar (Jamunia Ki Nal) (R. Tehsin pers. comm. 2003).

OTHER KEY FAUNA: The environs of the lakes do not harbour any major mammalian and reptilian fauna of conservation concern.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis resident  2004  present  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Sarus Crane Antigone antigone resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-naped Tit Parus nuchalis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2013 very high unfavourable negligible
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now whole area/population (>90%) moderate to rapid deterioration very high
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - type unknown/unrecorded happening now whole area/population (>90%) moderate to rapid deterioration very high

Artificial - aquatic   0 0 moderate (70-90%) moderate (70-90%) unfavourable

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Very little or no conservation action taking place  negligible 


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - aquatic   -
Artificial - terrestrial   -
Forest   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
Notes: Agriculture
fisheries/aquaculture -
Notes: Fishing
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and research
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Tourism and recreation
water management -
Notes: Water management

Acknowledgements Key contributors: Raza Tehsin, Satish K. Sharma, NEED Organization (Udaipur).


Sankhla, S. K., Paliwal, P. P., Billore, D. K. and Jain, S. L. (1996): Structure and production dynamics of macrophytic and moist bank vegetation of Udaipur wetlands. In: Contributions to the Environmental Sciences (Vyas, L. N., Garg, R. K. & Purohit, S. D. Eds:), Himanshu Publications, Udaipur-New Delhi. Pp. 71.

Sharma, S. K. (2002): Preliminary Biodiversity Survey of Protected Areas of Southern Rajasthan. Unpbl. Pp. 1-23.

Tehsin, R. (1989). Faunal history of Fatehsagar Lake. In: Wetland Conservation (Vyas, L. N. and Garg, R. K. eds.), Environment Community Centre, Udaipur. Pp. 109-117.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Udaipur Lakes Complex. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016

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