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Location India, Rajasthan
Central coordinates 73o 10.00' East  24o 22.00' North
IBA criteria A1
Area 51,114 ha
Altitude 0
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Phulwari Wildlife Sanctuary is among the few sanctuaries in Rajasthan having a rich floral diversity. It abounds in flowering plants, shrubs, herbs and climbers, hence the name Phulwari, i.e the abode of flowers. It was the hunting ground of the erstwhile rulers of Bhomat, the region by which it is popularly known. It was declared as a Sanctuary in 1983 in recognition of its biodiversity. It comprises Tropical Dry Deciduous forests of miscellaneous species with rich growth of bamboo. The area is mostly inhabited by Meena, Garasiya and Kathodia tribals who still live in primitive conditions. The Sanctuary is situated amidst the Aravalli Range in Udaipur district of Rajasthan, c. 123 km southwest of Udaipur. It borders Gujarat state to the south and southeast. The terrain is mainly hilly with a network of streams and nallas. The main river, Wakal, flowing southwards, divides the Sanctuary into two and debouches into Sabarmati river in Gujarat State. The Sanctuary can be approached by road from Udaipur and Ahmedabad, which are 123 km and 140 km away respectively. The important woody vegetation along the watercourses in the Sanctuary comprises tall trees such as Buchanania lanzan, Pongamia pinnata, Madhuca indica, Terminalia arjuna, Syzygium cumini, Ficus bengalensis and Phoenix sylvestris. The upper and middle slopes of the hills bear Terminalia tomentosa, Lannea coromandelica, Wrightia spp., Anogeissus latifolia and Diospyros melanoxylon.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: Phulwari Sanctuary is one of the most neglected sanctuaries of Rajasthan. Nevertheless, 202 bird species are reported from this site (Sharma 2002). Except for the two species of vultures recently classified as Critically Endangered (BirdLife International 2001), and the Vulnerable Pied or White-winged Black Tit Parus nuchalis, not many threatened bird species are found in Phulwari Wildlife Sanctuary, but the extant, albeit fragmented forest, harbours 30 out of 59 Biome-11 (Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone) species. The Sanctuary is also a good example of the representative faunal diversity of the Aravalli mountains. It also harbours five Near Threatened species in the waterbodies and streams but their numbers are not significant.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: General biodiversity of this Sanctuary has been well studied with long lists of reptiles, amphibians and mammals available (Sharma 1995, 1997, 2002). The key reptilian species of the Sanctuary are the Marsh Crocodile Crocodylus palustris, Monitor Lizard Varanus bengalensis and Indian Rock Python Python molurus. Among primates, Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus is very common. Leopard Panthera pardus, Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Hyena Hyaena hyaena, Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis and Wild Boar Sus scrofa are also encountered.

Chinkara Gazella bennettii and Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis are the herbivores which provide food for the top carnivores. Chundawat et al. (2002) also reported Large Brown Flying Squirrel Petaurista petaurista. Along with Sitamata WLS (an IBA), Phulwari is the westernmost limit of the distribution of this species in India.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Indian Vulture Gyps indicus non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
White-naped Tit Parus nuchalis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2003 low not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - dams (size unknown) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Phulwari Ki Nal Sanctuary 51,141 is identical to site 51,114  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry -
Notes: Plantation
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and research
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Tourism and recreation
water management -
Notes: Water management

Acknowledgements Key contributor: Satish K. Sharma.


BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK Chundawat, P. S., Sharma, S. K.,and H. S. Solanki (2002) Occurrence of the Large Brown Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista philippensis) in Phulwari Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan. Zoo’s Print Journal 17(11): 941.

Sharma, S. K. (1995) Amphibians of Phulwari Kival Wildlife Sanctuary. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 92(2): 271-272.

Sharma, S. K. (1997) Herpetofauna of Phulwari Kival Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan state. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 94(3): 573-575.

Sharma, S. K. (2002) Preliminary Biodiversity Survey of Protected Areas of Southern Rajasthan. Pp. 1-23. Unpublished report.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Phulwari Wildlife Sanctuary. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016

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