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Location India, Rajasthan
Central coordinates 73o 54.22' East  24o 33.38' North
IBA criteria A1
Area 57,825 ha
Altitude 0
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description The Kumbalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary in the Aravalli ranges is situated in the hilly tracts of Rajsamand, Udaipur and Pali districts. These wooded tracts formed the dividing line between the erstwhile states of Mewar and Marwar and were favourite hunting grounds of the rulers of these states. Kumbalgarh commands a spectacular view of the vast sandy plains of Marwar in the west, the northeast to southwest streak of parallel ranges of the Aravalli in the middle, and the undulating plains of Mewar in the east. The Sanctuary also forms a dividing line between the two major watersheds of Rajasthan. To its eastern side is found the source of the River Banas, which flows into the Bay of Bengal routed through the rivers Chambal, Yamuna and Ganga. The rainwater on the western slope forms small rivers including Sukdi, Mithadi, Sumer and Kot which form the tributaries of River Luni that flows out in the Great Rann of Kutch. The Sanctuary is well known for the presence of a large population of Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii and Grey Wolf Canis lupus. It is also one of the best protected forests left in the Aravalli mountains. The Sanctuary is connected by road to Udaipur (75 km), Rajsamand (40 km) and Pali (80 km). The nearest railway station is Falna.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: The Sanctuary, with perennial waterbodies and streams supports dense forest cover. More than 200 bird species are reported (Sharma 2002, Chhangani 2002). The threatened bird species are Sarus Crane Grus antigone and Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis, reported by Sharma (2002) and Chhangani (2002) respectively. Kumbalgarh is an excellent representative of the natural vegetation and avifauna of the Aravalli. Twenty five out of 59 bird species of Biome-11 (Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone) are found here. The site was selected on the basis of criteria A3 (Biome restricted assemblages), although some threatened species are also found.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Among the large mammals, the Sanctuary harbours Leopard Panthera pardus, Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus, Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Spotted Deer Axis axis, Chinkara Gazella bennettii, Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis and Bluebul Boselaphus tragocamelus Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus is a commonly seen primate of the Sanctuary. Grey Wolf Canis lupus, Golden Jackal C. aureus, Hyena Hyaena hyaena, Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis, Pangolin Manis crassicaudata, Porcupine Hystrix indica, Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Black-naped Hare Lepus nigricollis are the more commonly observed smaller mammals.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Indian Vulture Gyps indicus non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Sarus Crane Antigone antigone resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis breeding  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-naped Tit Parus nuchalis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Green Avadavat Amandava formosa resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2013 very high favourable medium
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species happening now whole area/population (>90%) moderate to rapid deterioration very high

Forest   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Kumbhalgarh Sanctuary 57,825 is identical to site 57,825  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Shrubland   -
Artificial - terrestrial   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry -
Notes: Plantation
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and research
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Tourism and recreation
water management -
Notes: Water management

Acknowledgements Key contributors: Satish K. Sharma, Raza Tehsin, Satya P. Mehra, and Sarita Sharma..


Chhangani, A. K. (2002) Avifauna of Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Aravalli Hills of Rajasthan. Zoo’s Print Journal 17(4): 764-768.

Rodgers, W. A. and Panwar, H. S. (1988) Planning a Protected Area Network in India. Vol. 2 Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.

Sharma, S. K. (2002) Preliminary Biodiversity Survey of Protected Areas of Southern Rajasthan. Unpublished report. Pp. 1-23.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Kumbalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016

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