|Central coordinates||82o 32.55' East 20o 27.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A3|
|Altitude||350 - 1,000m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Sunabeda is situated in the Nuapada district of Orissa, adjoining Chhattisgarh State. The Sanctuary harbours a great diversity of wildlife habitats, with a vast plateau and canyons with 11 waterfalls. There are several riparian forests patches where species such as the Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica and the Flying Squirrel Petaurista sp. could be expected (Kotwal 1997). The Sanctuary forms the catchment area of the Jonk river, over which a dam has been constructed to facilitate irrigation. Thirtyfive families in Maragura village within the Sanctuary need to be rehabilitated (Kotwal 1997). The Indra nullah lies to the south and Son River to the west of the Sanctuary. The important vegetation of the site comprises Dry Deciduous Tropical Forest species such as Tectona grandis, Dalbergia sissoo, Boswellia serrata, Adina cordifolia, Diospyros melanoxylon, Emblica officinalis and Terminalia bellerica, as well as semi-evergreen species around the riverine belt such as Terminalia arjuna and Syzygium cumini.
AVIFAUNA: Around 200 species of birds have been reported from this area (H. K. Bisht in litt. 2002). BirdLife International (undated) has listed 59 species in Biome-11 (Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone), of which 18 have been seen till now, but more are likely to occur. Except for the two Gyps vultures, which are now included in the Critically Endangered category by BirdLife International (2001) due to their steep decline during the last 10 years, none of the other species is threatened with extinction. Biome-11 includes a wide range of habitats, including forests and open country. Many of the species listed have adapted to man-modified habitats. Some species have deviated so far from their earlier distribution that they may not be useful in identifying IBAs for the protection of this biome (BirdLife International, undated).
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary has certainly seen better days. It had Swamp Deer Cervus duvauceli branderi and Wild Buffalo Bubalus bubalis (= arnee) (Kotwal 1997). Even now, typical central Indian wild mammals such as Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard P. pardus, Gaur Bos frontalis, Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Wild Boar Sus scrofa and Bluebull Boselaphus tragocamelus are found, although depleted by poaching. Among the non-human primates, Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus and Rhesus Monkey Macaca mulatta are very common.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1, A3||Critically Endangered|
|Indian Vulture Gyps indicus||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||high|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting||whole area/population (>90%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Natural system modifications||fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Residential and commercial development||housing and urban areas||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||high|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Sunabeda||Sanctuary||50,000||is identical to site||50,000|
Local conservation groups The local conservation group below is working to support conservation at this IBA.
|Wild Orissa (Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary)||0|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Human settlements|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: P. C. Kotwal and Biswajit Mohanty.
BirdLife International (2001)Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book, Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
Kotwal, P. C. (1997) Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary: A potential haven for the Cheetah. Hornbill 3: 24-27.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/10/2016
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