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Location India, Nagaland
Central coordinates 94o 40.00' East  25o 52.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 5,000 ha
Altitude 1,800 - 2,400m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Satoi is located the middle of the Naga Hill ranges. It has intact prime forests and deep wooded valleys. This Data Deficient site is perhaps extremely rich in avifauna. It harbours temperate and subtropical broadleaf (evergreen) forests. The temperate forest is found mostly above 2,000 m. So far the only ornithological survey in the area was carried out in June 1996 (Choudhury 1997). The state bird of Nagaland, Blyth’s Tragopan Tragopan blythii, occurs here in good numbers, especially above 2,000 m. This species features in tourist brochures, posters, hotel publicity material, and government offices. In Satoi range, it is less persecuted than in other areas, due to which a good population is still found there.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: Choudhury (2001) has reported 487 species of birds from Nagaland, including 9 globally threatened, 5 near threatened and 8 restricted range species. Many of these species are likely to occur in Satoi Range. The most important species, for which this site is designated as an IBA, is Blyth’s Tragopan. It is locally known as Ayigah by the Sema Nagas and Mu by Angami Nagas. According to Choudhury (1997), Satoi is undoubtedly one of the best areas for this species in Nagaland. It usually occurs above 2,000 m in broadleaf forest. Although the tragopan usually occurs above 1800 m, due to disturbance and clearance of forest between 1800 m and 2000 m, it is not seen around these elevations. Although Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant Syrmaticus humei could not be recorded during a recent survey (Choudhury 2002), this rare species is likely to be present in the lower slopes. Satoi Range lies in the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA) (Stattersfield et al. 1998). Among the six major EBAs of India, this EBA has the maximum number of species (21 compared to 16 in Western Ghats EBA and 11 in Western Himalayas EBA). However, only Grey Sibia Heterophasia gracilis, a restricted range species, has been reported from Satoi, mainly because no detailed study on birds has been conducted here. Similarly, this site has two important biomes, with a total of 207 biome species, as listed by BirdLife International (undated), but it is not known how many biome species occur in Satoi. Some other species recorded in the area are the Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis and Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus. Latter was recorded at 2020 m which was the second highest elevation record for the species (Choudhury 1996).

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Despite the hunting pressure, the following species still survive: Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Leopard Panthera pardus, Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Stump-tailed Macaque Macaca arctoides and Hoolock Gibbon Hylobates hoolock.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Blyth's Tragopan Tragopan blythii resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Mrs Hume's Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae resident  2004  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Grey Sibia Heterophasia gracilis resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2003 high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale likely in long term (beyond 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
Notes: Jhumming in the lower reaches
forestry -
Notes: Forestry

Acknowledgements Key contributors: Anwarunddin Choudhury, Khekiho Sohe, M. I. Bora and Akato Sema.


BirdLife International (undated) Important Birds (IBA) in Asia: Project Briefing Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K. Unpublished.

Choudhury, A. U. (1996) New elevation record for Black-winged Kite from Nagaland. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 36 (5): 96.

Choudhury, A. U. (1997) New localities for Blyth’s tragopan from Nagaland, India. WPA News 52: 13-15.

Choudhury, A. U. (2001) Some bird records from Nagaland, north-east India. Forktail 17: 91-103.

Choudhury, A. U. (2002) Survey of Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant: NE India. Final Report to OBC, UK Technical Report No. 5 of The Rhino Foundation for Nature NE India, Guwahati.Pp. 30.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, U.K. Pp 846.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Satoi Range. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016

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