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Location India, Madhya Pradesh
Central coordinates 80o 4.78' East  24o 25.93' North
IBA criteria A1
Area 54,267 ha
Altitude 200 - 550m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Panna National Park is located in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh and spreads over two districts, Panna and Chhattarpur. It is 37 km from the airport at Khajuraho, a World Heritage site famous for its beautifully sculpted temples. Satna is the nearest railhead, c. 70 km from the Park headquarters. The forest of Panna was the game reserve of the erstwhile princely states of Bijawar, Chhattarpur and Panna. The boundaries of the earlier Gangau Wildlife Sanctuary were modified in 1981, to create the present Panna National Park. In 1994, it became India’s 22nd Tiger Reserve. Panna can boast of some of the most ruggedly beautiful scenery, vast flat plateaux separated by steep escarpments, ranging from 30 to 100 m. Talgoan and Hinota plateau extend over roughly half of the Park. Three villages located on the Hinota plateau were relocated in the early 1980s, creating a large area free of human disturbance (Yoganand 2001). This now forms the core area of the Park. More than a third of the Park the Chandranagar range, lies to the west of the Ken river. This area is a mosaic of tablelands and valleys. Unfortunately, this range suffers from high biotic pressure due to its proximity to villages. Ken River, which joins the Yamuna, passes through the Park forming a perennial source of water in this area. The main forest types in the Park are Tropical Dry Deciduous Mixed Forest with Teak Tectona grandis. Although predominantly an open forest, Panna supports varied vegetation types: closed canopy forested areas, which occur mostly along the escarpments, stream beds and less disturbed areas; open forests with short grass and shrub understorey; open savannah woodlands on the shallow plateau; tall grasslands that grow in relocated village sites and degraded scrub, largely towards the south and the periphery (Yoganand 2001).

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: In a checklist prepared by the Wildlife Institute of India (Gogate et al. 2002), 228 species of birds have been listed, but later six more (Yellow-legged Button-quail Turnix tanki, Barred Buttonquail Turnix suscitator, Slaty-breasted Rail Gallirallus striatus, Brown Hawk Owl, Ninox scutulata, Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus and the Grey-necked Bunting Emberiza buchanani) have been added (Koustubh Sharma pers. comm 2003). Panna is perhaps the best and most extensive forest left in northcentral Madhya Pradesh in the Bundelkhand area. It is located at the junction of the Deccan and the Indo-Gangetic Plains, therefore the bird life is very rich. With about 235 species of birds, it hosts almost all the biome assemblage species of this area, thus justifying its selection as an IBA. Another reason for its selection is that Panna still has a breeding colony of the Critically Endangered Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus. During the 2002 breeding season, five active nests were observed at Dhundhwa cliffs of Hinauta Range, which were regularly monitored. Only one of these nests seemingly succeeded and a fledgling flew off during the observation period. Many other cliffs of this Park could have nesting sites and need to be further investigated. The vultures, though substantially depleted in number, still can be seen on carcasses around the Park. The Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus, listed as Vulnerable can be seen in Panna frequently after late winters. The Birdlife International(undated) has listed 59 species in Biome-11. Panna NP has 32, including the two Gyps species mentioned earlier. The list is too long to be mentioned here.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Among the large predators, Tiger Panthera tigris is the top carnivore in the Reserve with its nearest competitor being the Leopard Panthera pardus followed by rarely seen packs of Dhole or Wild Dog Cuon alpinus. The best known areas of animal distribution are Madla, Hinouta and Panna ranges. The various habitat types available in these ranges provide haven to good populations of Chinkara Gazella bennettii, Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus, Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus, Chital Axis axis, Sambar Cervus unicolor and Wild Boar Sus scrofa. Panna also boasts of a good population of Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis, which can be seen mostly in thick grassy areas, patches of good undergrowth and moderate canopy cover.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Indian Vulture Gyps indicus non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 

IBA Monitoring

2013 medium favourable medium
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Forest   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Panna National Park 54,267 is identical to site 54,267  

Local conservation groups The local conservation group below is working to support conservation at this IBA.

Name Year formed
Panna SSG 0


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Wetlands (inland)   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
energy production and mining -
Notes: Mining industries
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and research
other -
Notes: Pilgrimage
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Tourism and recreation

Acknowledgements Key contributors: Koustubh Sharma and T. Yoganand.


Gogate, N., Yoganand, K and Sinha, B. C. (2002) The birds of Panna National Park: A checklist. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun.

Yoganand, K. (2001) Panna through the seasons. Sanctuary Asia 21(6): 34-39.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Panna National Park. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016

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