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Location India, Madhya Pradesh
Central coordinates 77o 41.43' East  25o 28.83' North
IBA criteria A1
Area 37,522 ha
Altitude 360 - 480m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Madhav National Park was established in 1958 at the time of the creation of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It got its present name in 1959, when it was given final notification of establishment. The Park adjoins Shivpuri town, and is located about 110 km south of the city of Gwalior. Two national highways, N-3 Bombay-Agra and N-25 Shivpuri-Bhognipur, pass through the Park. The Park also has a good network of motorable roads for tourists. The Park is interspersed with hills and valleys of the central Indian Vindhyachal hill ranges. It is very popular amongst local tourists and visitors, but not so much among foreign tourists. It was the hunting preserve and summer resort of the former Maharaja of Gwalior. It is reported that in 1916, Lord Hardinge shot eight tigers in one day in the Shivpuri forests, and Lord Minto shot 19 tigers during his trip to Gwalior State. These forests enjoyed a high degree of protection up to 1946. In 1918, the Maharaja of Gwalior constructed dams on the Manihar river, creating the Sakhya Sagar (300 ha) and Madhav lakes (49 ha). With their scenic beauty and complete infrastructure for wildlife conservation, these reservoirs now attract thousands of waterfowl. The forests of the Park are typically Mixed Dry Deciduous. Important tree species in the Park are Anogeissus pendula, Boswellia serrata and Acacia catechu.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: During a study by the BNHS, 227 birds were identified from this Park. The lakes attract thousands of ducks and other water birds, sometimes numbering more than 20,000 (A4iii criteria). During the drought years of 1987-88, when other waterbodies were dry, not less than 25,000 birds were found in the Sakhya Sagar reservoir. During normal rainfall years when other waterbodies are full, the number of Demoiselle Cranes Grus virgo and Common Cranes Grus grus vary from 400 to 550, and less than 100 respectively. However, during the severe drought of 1987-88, Saxena (1990) claims to have found 7,000 Demoiselle and 1,000 Common Cranes. Sarus Crane Grus antigone is also found, but was not found to breed there between 1982-1988. During ringing camps of the BNHS between 1987 and 1992, 979 birds of 115 species were ringed (Hussain 1998). Madhav NP is also rich in bird life typical of Dry Deciduous Tropical Forest. BirdLife International (undated) has listed 59 from Biome-11 (Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone), of which 30 species have been listed by Hussain (1998). A pair of Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus was regularly seen but no nest could be found.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Madhav National Park has a long history of protection, as mentioned above. However, Wild Tiger Panthera tigris has disappeared as a resident animal, although occasional individuals are sighted. The major carnivores are Leopard P. pardus, Striped Hyena Hyaena hyaena, Golden Jackal Canis aureus and Jungle Cat Felis chaus. Chital Axis axis, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus, Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis, Gazelle Gazella bennettii and Wild Boar Sus scrofa are the major ungulates. Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus is reported, but rarely seen. Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus is abundant, and the waterbodies are inhabited by Marsh Crocodile Crocodylus palustris.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Indian Vulture Gyps indicus non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis breeding  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2003 high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Madhav National Park 37,522 is identical to site 37,522  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Artificial - aquatic   -
Artificial - terrestrial   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry -
Notes: Forestry activities
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and research
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Tourism and recreation

Acknowledgements Key contributors: Asad R. Rahmani and Shailesh Pathak.


BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.

Hussain, S. A. (1998) Bird Migration 1987-1992. Phase II. Final Report. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai. Pp. 142.

Saxena, R. (1990) The Cranes of Madhav National Park. J. Ecol. Soc. 3: 37-40.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Madhav National Park. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016

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