|Location||India, Madhya Pradesh|
|Central coordinates||77o 21.63' East 23o 13.67' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i, A4iii|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Bhoj Wetland comprises two contiguous man-made reservoirs, the “Upper Lake” and the “Lower Lake”. The Upper Lake was created by Raja Bhoj in the 11th century by the construction of an earthen dam across the Kolans river, and the Lower Lake was constructed nearly 200 years ago, largely from the overflow of water from the Upper Lake. Both the lakes are urban waterbodies, located in the fast growing city of Bhopal, the state capital. Bhoj Wetland was designated as a Ramsar site in November 2002. The Upper Lake is surrounded by Van Vihar National Park on the south, human settlements on the east and north, and agriculture fields on the west. The Lower Lake is surrounded by human settlements on all sides. The Upper Lake is a major source of potable water for Bhopal. The Upper lake is very rich in biodiversity, particularly resident and migratory birds, macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, both natural and cultured fish species, insects, reptiles and amphibians. A management action plan has been implemented since 1995, with financial support from the Government of Japan. As part of this management plan, to follow up the impact on birds, 18-month study was undertaken in 2000-01, which helped in documenting the avifauna of the site. During this study, more than 20,000 waterbirds (A4iii criteria) were recorded. A belt of deciduous forest, with cliffs and steep contours towards the southeastern boundary comprises Van Vihar National Park. The greater part of the long western and southwestern peripheries of the site is covered with a mix of semi-desert and secondary scrub, semi-arid grassland, arable land, improved pastureland, perennial crop cultivation and forestry plantation. The extensive forestry plantation, being still young, around the lake boundaries augurs well for avian diversity in the near future.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Pallas's Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Common Coot Fulica atra||-||2004||present||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Sarus Crane Antigone antigone||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A4i||Vulnerable|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||unknown||2004||20,000 individuals||unknown||A4iii|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Bhoj Wetland||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||3,201||unknown||0|
|Van Vihar||National Park||445||protected area overlaps with site||0|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - aquatic||-|
|Artificial - terrestrial||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
|Notes: Domestic water management|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Koustubh Sharma and P. K. Nandi.
Sharma, K. (2002) Avifauna Study of the Upper Lake, Bhopal. Pp. 292.
Bhoj Wetland Project, Environment Planning and Coordination Organization, Bhopal.
Wetlands International (2002) Waterbirds Population Estimates: Third Edition. Wetlands International Global Series No. 12. Wageningen, The Netherlands.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Bhoj wetland. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014
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