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Location India, Manipur
Central coordinates 93o 25.00' East  24o 12.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 18,750 ha
Altitude 500 - 2,018m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Kailam Wildlife Sanctuary is located within the Kailam-Tipaimukh Hill Range in Churachandpur district. The terrain is mainly hilly, with a large number of streams, and thick forested hillsides. Most of the streams flow from this hill range into the Tuivai river. This is another lesser known area of Manipur state. A hydroelectric power project is proposed on the Tipaimukh river, which is likely to submerge part of the Sanctuary (R.K.Ranjan Singh pers. comm. 2003) This proposed data deficient IBA is covered with Tropical Evergreen and Semi-evergreen Forests and Bamboo brakes.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: General information on avifauna is lacking, due to which this IBA is considered as Data Deficient. According to A. U. Choudhury (pers. comm. 2003), the bird life is extremely rich, like most of the tropical rainforest areas of Manipur. The Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis, a Vulnerable species, and Grey Sibia Heterophasia gracilis (Restricted Range species) according to BirdLife International (2001) have been reported, but their status and distribution within the site is not known. There are records of Mrs Hume’s Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae from nearby areas (Choudhury 2002), so it may occur at this site also. This site is famous for five species of hornbills: Brown Anorrhinus tickelli, Rufous-necked, Great Pied Buceros bicornis, Wreathed Aceros undulatus and Oriental Pied Anthracoceros albirostris. Kailam WLS is located in the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area. There are 21 restricted range species in this EBA. Considering the extent of natural forests still remaining in this IBA, most of the restricted range species of the Eastern Himalayas EBA are likely to occur here. The greater part of the Sanctuary is at 1,000 m above msl, so it falls in Biome-9 (Indo-Chinese Tropical Moist Forest). In the higher reaches, between 1,000 m and 2,000 m, Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest (Biome-8) is seen. At least 114 biomerestricted species are likely to occur here. A detailed investigation of this IBA is urgently needed.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: As in the case of avifauna, not much is known about the mammalian and reptilian fauna. However, the area lies in the general distribution range of the Leopard Panthera pardus, Golden Cat Catopuma temmincki, Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis, Hoolock Gibbon Hylobates hoolock, Stump-tailed Macaque Macaca arctoides and Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Mrs Hume's Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae resident  2004  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Grey Sibia Heterophasia gracilis resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2003 high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - shifting agriculture happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - large dams likely in long term (beyond 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration high

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Kailam Sanctuary 18,750 is identical to site 18,750  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
Notes: Jhum cultivation
forestry -
Notes: Forest

Acknowledgements Key contributors: W. Rajesh Singh, Salam Rajesh, R. K. Ranjan Singh and Anwaruddin Choudhury.


BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, U.K.

Choudhury, A. U. (2002) Survey of Mrs Hume’s Pheasant in northeastern India. The Rhino Foundation for nature in North East India, Guwahati. Pp 27.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Kailam Wildlife Sanctuary. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016

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