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Location India, Manipur
Central coordinates 94o 34.00' East  25o 13.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 40,000 ha
Altitude 500 - 2,000m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description The Ango or Anko Hills lie on the Indo-Myanmar border, in the Ukhrul district, northeast of Manipur. Owing to its remoteness, the area is largely undisturbed. The local community is also inclined to give it some protection. The forests consist of Moist Subtropical and Tropical Evergreen types. The flora and fauna are poorly known, however, the Green Peafowl Pavo muticus and Rufousnecked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis, two threatened species, are reported from this site (A. U. Choudhury pers. comm. 2003).

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: The bird life of the Anko range is not very well known. This site lies in the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA), identified by Stattersfield et al. (1998) and BirdLife International (undated). This EBA is one of the bird rich areas of India, with 21 restricted range species, and a total of 114 bird species found in Biome-8 (Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest) and Biome-7 (Indo-Chinese Tropical Moist Forest). Ango Hills is one of the two IBAs in India where the Green or Burmese Peafowl is found, hence it is considered extremely important for conservation. Historically, the Green Peafowl was distributed widely from northeast India to southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia (BirdLife International 2001). It persists in all these countries except Malaysia and Bangladesh, but it has certainly declined and now only occurs in fragmented, greatly reduced populations. The current world population of this peafowl in the wild is estimated at 5,000 to 10,000 individuals, and declining (McGowan and Garson 1995). In India, it was formerly distributed on the southern banks of the Brahmaputra river, from Nagaon to Cachar district, but now it is restricted to east Manipur (Choudhury 2000). Therefore, protection of this IBA is an urgent need. BirdLife International (2001) has listed only four sites in Manipur for Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant Syrmaticus humei. However, Choudhury (2002) has identified 11 more sites for this State Bird of Manipur. Four species of hornbills are found: the globally threatened Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis, Near Threatened Great Pied Hornbill Buceros bicornis and Brown Hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli, and much commoner Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris. The Wreathed Hornbill Aceros undulatus is also likely to occur (A. U. Choudhury pers. comm. 2003).

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Among the mammals, the Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatraensis is noteworthy (Choudhury 1997). Villagers of Konkan, which is about 88 km by road from Ukhrul town, encountered stray individuals as recently as the early 1990s (Aleng pers. comm. to Choudhury 1997). In the 1970s, a rhino was shot by the Tangkhul Naga tribe (known as the Somra tribe in Myanmar) of Khamsong village, northeast of Ukhrul town.

If it is proved that this highly endangered mammal still exists in the area, the site would need special protection. Choudhury (1997) has suggested that about 40,000 ha of the Ango Range of Manipur (and about 50,000 ha in the Saramati-Fakim area of Nagaland) should be declared protected areas to save the rhinos and their habitat.The Sumatran Rhinoceros is perhaps the most endangered large mammal in the world, with an estimated population of only 300 animals (Foose and Strien 1998).

Seven species of primates are found in the area: the Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis, Rhesus Macaque M. mulatta, Stump-tailed macaque M. arctoides, Pig-tailed macaque M. nemestrina, Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileata, Hoolock Gibbon Hylobates hoolock and Slow Loris Nycticebus coucang.

Among the carnivores, Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard Panthera pardus, Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa, Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Dhole or Wild Dog Cuon alpinus and Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus are found. Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Indian Muntjak or Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Gaur Bos frontalis, Goral Nemorhaedus goral and Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis are the major ungulates found in the area.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Green Peafowl Pavo muticus resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Blyth's Tragopan Tragopan blythii resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Mrs Hume's Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae resident  2004  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Grey Sibia Heterophasia gracilis resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2003 low not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Biological resource use gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target) likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry -
Notes: Forestry

Acknowledgements Key contributors: R. K. Ranjan Singh, Anwaruddin Choudhury, M. Firoz Ahmed, Salam Rajesh and T. Muivah.


BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, U.K.

Choudhury, A. (1997) The status of the Sumatran Rhinoceros in northeast India. Oryx 31 (2): 151-152.

Choudhury, A. U. (1998) Manipur: Biodiversity threatened. Sanctuary Asia. Vol. 18 No. 4 30-39.

Choudhury, A. U. (2000) The Birds of Assam. Gibbon Books and WWFNorth- East Regional Office, Guwahati.

Choudhury, A. U. (2002) Survey of Mrs Hume’s Pheasant in northeastern India. The Rhino Foundation for nature in North East India, Guwahati. Pp 27.

Foose, T. J. and Strien, N. J van (1998) Conservation programmes for Sumatran and Javan rhinos in Indonesia and Malaysia. Pachyderm 26: 100-115.

McGowan, P. J. K. and Garson, P. J. (1995) Pheasants: Status survey and conservation action plan 1995-1999. IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, U.K.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Ango or Anko Hills. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016

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