|Central coordinates||90o 53.40' East 25o 14.77' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A4i|
|Altitude||50 - 1,026m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description This site includes two protected areas and a reserve forest in South Garo Hills district in western Meghalaya. The protected areas are Balpakram National Park (22,000 ha) and Siju Wildlife Sanctuary (518 ha), while the reserve forest is Baghmara (4,429 ha). The first two are contiguous, while the reserve forest is linked through unclassified forests. Balpakram literally means “continuous wind blow”. The Garos believe that it is the land of departed souls. The site, well known for its beautiful scenery, contains expansive tracts of relatively undisturbed forest clad hills and gorges. The area supports a large Asian Elephant Elephas maximus population (Anon. 2002, Choudhury 1999). Balpakram is comprised of a plateau of c. 700 ha at 797 m above msl from which originate a number of rivers that have cut deep gorges (up to nearly 800 m) and valleys in various directions. Mahadeo is one such spectacular canyon. The area is rich in minerals, notably coal (with a possible reserve of 107 million tonnes), limestone, mica, feldspar and beryl. Siju WLS is contiguous with Balpakram, and is also hilly with the River Simsang along its western boundary. The famous Siju cave is just outside the boundary of the Sanctuary. Baghmara RF located closeby touches the India-Bangladesh international border. It is a low hilly undulating country with marshy depressions. We have considered all three areas as one IBA. As the area is relatively remote, the forest cover is still intact. Eight forest types have been identified in this IBA: Tropical Evergreen forest on the gorges and steep slopes; Tropical Semievergreen or Mixed Evergreen forest in depressions on the plateau and surrounded by grassland or secondary forest; Riverine forest in areas subject to periodic inundation; grassland and tree savanna confined to Rongcheng and Lumsorjong areas and maintained through browsing and burning; Tropical Deciduous forest, which is a successional type and man-made forest; Bamboo forest, dominated by Bambusa sp. and Melocanna bambusifolia; and secondary formations in areas of shifting cultivation (Kumar and Rao 1985).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|White-winged Duck Asarcornis scutulata||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Grey Sibia Heterophasia gracilis||-||2004||present||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Balphakram||National Park||22,000||protected area contained by site||22,000|
|Siju||Sanctuary||518||protected area contained by site||518|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature Conservation|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Anwaruddin Choudhury, Kulojyoti Lahkar and Firoz Ahmed.
Anonymous (2002) Elephant Census 2002 in Meghalaya. Environment and Forest Department, Govt. of Meghalaya, Shillong.
Choudhury, A. U. (1996a) The Secrets of the Wood Duck. Environ IV (I): 16-19. Calcutta.
Choudhury, A. U. (1996b) Red panda in Garo Hills. Environ IV (I): 21. Calcutta.
Choudhury, A. U. (1999) Status and Conservation of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus in north-eastern India. Mammal Review29(3): 141-173.
Choudhury, A. U. (2002) Conservation of the White-winged Wood Duck Cairina scutulata in India, pp. 52-64. In: Birds of wetlands and grasslands: Proceedings of the Sâlim Ali Centenary Seminar on Conservation of avifauna of Wetlands and Grasslands.Eds: Rahmani, A.R. and Ugra, G. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai. Pp. x+228.
Kumar, Y. and Rao, R. R. (1985) Studies on Balaphakram Wildlife Sanctuary in Meghalaya - 3: General Account, Forest Types and Fauna. Ind. J. For. 8: 300 - 309.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Balpakram Complex. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2014
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