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Location India, Maharashtra
Central coordinates 73o 24.77' East  18o 46.17' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 1,000 ha
Altitude 100 - 1,100m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description INS Shivaji, established in 1945, is a premier training base of the Indian Navy located about 6 km west of Lonavla town, a popular tourist resort in the Sahyadri Hills. Lonavala (650 m) is situated c. 120 km from Mumbai on the main road and rail link with Pune. The presence of this defence establishment, spread over 1,500 acres, has served to protect some valuable original tropical moist/semievergreen forest and upland grassland habitats of the area against growing urbanisation and development. Inaccessible valleys to the west of Lonavla still hold good expanses of the original moist tropical and semi-evergreen forest. The surrounding hills provide very good upland grassland habitats during the post monsoon months. The area beyond Khandala towards Duke’s Nose hill and extending towards the Tiger’s Leap ravine along the top of the ridges, and up to 2 km on either side of the ridges is proposed as an IBA. The area is typical of the Western Ghats, with evergreen and moist deciduous type vegetation and high diversity of plant species. The carnivorous plant Utricularia sp. is common in small springs, which play an important role in ecology and nitrogen cycle. Karvi Carvia callosa is a dominant plant species on the hill slopes. Other tree species Kumbha Careya arborea, Anjani Memecylon umbellatum, Nirgudi Vitex nigundo and Ranperu Randia dumetorum are commonly found here. Some medicinal plants such as Dhyati Woodfordia fruticosa, Ashwagandha Withania somnifera and Jungli Kanda Vernonia cinerea are also found here.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: The birds of INS Shivaji and its adjoining areas were studied from September 11 to November 10, 2002, and during a short visit earlier between March, 12 to 14, 2002. A total of 225 species were recorded during this period. The steep cliff facing towards the west of INS Shivaji has a sizeable nesting population of the Longbilled Vulture, Gyps indicus, a Critically Endangered species. Flocks up to 20 birds were regularly seen. Two juvenile birds were seen on cliff ledges on many occasions in September 2002, indicating successful breeding. One pair of Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus and three pairs of Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus also inhabit these cliffs. The sighting of the Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis on the hill slopes (c. 900-1,000 m), overgrown with post-monsoon coarse grass, is particularly interesting, and possibly the first confirmed record so far north of its range in the southern Western Ghats (Per Alstrom pers. comm. 2002). Eight out of 16 restricted range species of the Western Ghats Endemic Bird Area (EBA 123) and six out of 15 Biome-10 species are found in this IBA site. Tytler’s Leafwarbler Rhylloscopus tytleri is also recorded from this area (K. B. Singh, pers. comm. 2003). During the study period, a male Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) was also seen on two occasions, indicating the presence of a small isolated population, hundreds of kilometres from the limit of its main geographical range. Possibly, they were introduced or are escaped birds. Ali and Ripley (1987) mentioned that Charles McCann had seen them in the outliers of Western Ghats near Bombay. The Red Junglefowl has also been reported from Khandala, which is near Lonavala. Grimmett et al. (1998) have shown this area in the distribution map of Red Junglefowl. The Grey Jungle Fowl (Gallus sonneratii) is particularly common here. Also interesting was the sighting of the Rusty-rumped Warbler (Locustella certhiola) on two occasions, perhaps the first record of the species from Maharashtra. This is a winter visitor mainly to West Bengal, Assam, Bangldesh, and there are some records in central India (Ali and Ripley 1987). Near Threatened species such as the Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, Darter Anhinga melanogaster, Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus and Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera are regulars in the water bodies and cultivation. The site lies in Biome-10 and is represented by the bird species of Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest. However, many species of other biomes are also found here. For example, Tickell’s Thrush Turdus unicolor and Blue-headed Rock-Thrush Monticola cinclorhynchus of the Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest and Tickell’s Warbler Phylloscopus affinis of the Eurasian High Montane winter here. Over 30 species of Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone (Biome-11) commonly seen here further add to the richness of the avifauna.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Leopard Panthera pardus is the major predator, still found in this area and surrounding jungles. Its main natural prey is the Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata, but it also subsists on cattle and stray dogs.

Among the reptiles, Uropeltid snakes are common. This site has many endangered amphibian species such as the Bombay Bush Frog Philautus bombayensis and Humayun’s Wrinkled Frog Nyctibatrachus humayuni. Indotyphlus battersbyi, an endangered and endemic caecilian, inhabits the area (Varad Giri pers. comm.).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Indian Vulture Gyps indicus non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Nilgiri Woodpigeon Columba elphinstonii resident  2004  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Malabar Parakeet Psittacula columboides resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Broad-tailed Grassbird Schoenicola platyurus resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Tytler's Leaf-warbler Phylloscopus tytleri winter  2004  present  A2  Near Threatened 
Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Blue-flycatcher Cyornis pallipes resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2003 low not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
energy production and mining -
Notes: Generation of hydro-electricity
forestry -
Notes: Reserve Forest
military -
Notes: Defense establishment
urban/industrial/transport -
Notes: Roads and railway lines

Acknowledgements Key contributor: Lt. Commd. Kanwar Bir Singh.


Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1987) Compact Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, Delhi.

Grimmet, R., Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T. (1998) Pocket Guide to the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: INS - Shivaji and adjoining areas, Lonavla. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife