|Central coordinates||76o 45.85' East 10o 24.63' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||500 - 1,444m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary in the Palghat district of Kerala, came into existence in 1962 when an area of 69.8 sq. km of the Sungam Range of Nemmara Forest Division was declared as a Sanctuary. Parambikulam Range of the Division of Teak Plantation was added to this in 1973, and final notification was done in 1984. At present, the area is about 235 sq. km. The Parambikulam WLS is adjacent to Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary (IBA) in Tamil Nadu, Nelliampathy (=Nellyampathy) Reserve Forests (IBA) of Nemmara Forest Division to the northwest, and the Vazhachal and Sholayar ranges to the southwest and south respectively (Vijayan 1979). It is part of a large area of forest comprising Anamalai, Nelliampathi, Sholayar High ranges and Palani Hills. The area in general slopes towards the west, the highest peak being Karimala Gopuram (1,418 m) (triangulation station of the Survey of India), while the lowest area is 433 m above msl on the bank of Chalakudi. Inside the Sanctuary area, three dams of the Parambikulam Aliyar Project were constructed in 1960 for irrigation and power generation, and are still under the administrative control of the Tamil Nadu State Government. The vegetation comprises of a variety of natural and man-made habitats. The former includes patches of Evergreen and Semievergreen forest, Secondary Moist Deciduous forest, which is widely distributed, and grasslands and marshes. The original Moist Deciduous vegetation in the eastern parts has been almost entirely replaced by teak plantations (Anon. 1982). The marshes, or vayals, with their dense grass cover, are the result of poor drainage and the accumulation of clayey loam over a long period of time. Stands of Bamboo Bambusa sp. and reeds Ochlandra sp. occur in the natural forests. The best natural Teak Tectona grandis in Kerala was once found in this region but is now rare due to overexploitation. The major species occurring in the Evergreen and Moist Deciduous forests are listed in Balakrishnan and Easa (1986) and Vijayan (1979). There is thick growth of Lantana camara in clearings, and of Eupatorium sp. in teak plantations, particularly where the plantations have failed.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Nilgiri Wood-pigeon Columba elphinstonii||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1, A2, A3||Vulnerable|
|Malabar Parakeet Psittacula columboides||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Wynaad Laughingthrush Garrulax delesserti||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Parambikulam||Sanctuary||28,500||is identical to site||28,500|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: P. S. Easa.
Anonymous (1982) Ecological aspects of the Silent Valley. Report of the Joint Committee. Department of Environment, Government of India. Pp. 44.
Balakrishnan, M., Easa, P. S. (1986) Habitat preferences of the larger mammals in the parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Biological Conservation 37: 191-200
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
Easa, P. S. and Balakrishnan, M. (1983) Population ecology and management problems of large mammals in the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. In: Conservation in Developing Countries (Eds. Daniel, J. C. and Serrao, J. S.). Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay.
Mathew, G., Rugmini, P. and Sudheendrakumar, V. V. (2002) Insect biodiversity in disturbed and undisturbed forests in the Kerala part of Western Ghats. Pp. 62-68. Biodiversity ‘Hotspots’ Conservation Programme (BHCP). Final Report 1992-2002, Vol - I (Western Ghats). Forests & Biodiversity Conservation Division, World Wide Fund For Nature - India, New Delhi. Pp. 195.
Mishra, C. and Johnsingh, A. J. T. (1994) Status and Conservation of the Nilgiri Tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius Ogily, 1838) in Anamalai Hills, South India. Mimeographed Report, pp. 26. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.
Nameer, P. O. (1994) Birds of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary - survey report. KAU and Kerala Forest Department. Pp. 20.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Vijayan, V. S. (1979) Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary and its adjacent areas. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75: 888-900.
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